3401 N Broad St 7Th Flr Parkinson Pavilion
Philadelphia PA 19140
Medical School: Hahnemann University College Of Medicine - 1968
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: MD013086E
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Chronic bronchitis and current smoking are associated with more goblet cells in moderate to severe COPD and smokers without airflow obstruction. - PloS one
Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB), independent of airflow obstruction.We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD) was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement membrane. Mucin volume density (MVD) was quantified as volume of mucin per unit area of basement membrane.Healthy smokers had a greater GCD and MVD than nonsmokers and COPD subjects. COPD subjects had a greater GCD than nonsmokers. When current smokers (healthy smokers and COPD current smokers, n = 19) were compared with all nonsmokers (nonsmoking controls and COPD ex-smokers, n = 19), current smokers had a greater GCD and MVD. When those with CB (n = 12) were compared to those without CB (n = 26), the CB group had greater GCD. This finding was also seen in those with CB in the COPD group alone. In multivariate analysis, current smoking and CB were significant predictors of GCD using demographics, lung function, and smoking pack years as covariates. All other covariates were not significant predictors of GCD or MVD.Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and CB is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD.
Analysis of the plasma proteome in COPD: Novel low abundance proteins reflect the severity of lung remodeling. - COPD
The search for COPD biomarkers has largely employed a targeted approach that focuses on plasma proteins involved in the systemic inflammatory response and in lung injury and repair. This proof of concept study was designed to test the idea that an open, unbiased, in-depth proteomics approach could identify novel, low abundance plasma proteins i.e., ng/mL concentration, which could serve as potential biomarkers. Differentially expressed proteins were identified in a discovery group with severe COPD (FEV1 <45% predicted; n = 10). Subjects with normal lung function matched for age, sex, ethnicity and smoking history served as controls (n = 10). Pooled plasma from each group was exhaustively immunodepleted of abundant proteins, d separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and extensively fractionated prior to LC-tandem mass spectroscopy (GeLC-MS). Thirty one differentially expressed proteins were identified in the discovery group including markers of lung defense against oxidant stress, alveolar macrophage activation, and lung tissue injury and repair. Four of the 31 proteins (i.e., GRP78, soluble CD163, IL1AP and MSPT9) were measured in a separate verification group of 80 subjects with varying COPD severity by immunoassay. All 4 were significantly altered in COPD and 2 (GRP78 and soluble CD163) correlated with both FEV1 and the extent of emphysema. In-depth, plasma proteomic analysis identified a group of novel, differentially expressed, low abundance proteins that reflect known pathogenic mechanisms and the severity of lung remodeling in COPD. These proteins may also prove useful as COPD biomarkers.
A review of barriers to effective asthma management in Puerto Ricans: cultural, healthcare system and pharmacogenomic issues. - The Journal of asthma : official journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Among the Hispanic community, Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of asthma and manifest the worst outcomes. The expected growth of the Hispanic population in the USA in the next several decades make elimination of disparate care in Puerto Rican asthmatics a matter of national importance. The purpose of this review of the literature (ROL) is to examine a variety of health system, genetic and cultural barriers in the Puerto Rican community which have created disparities in asthma care and outcomes among adult and pediatric Hispanic populations. In addition, this ROL describes several culturally sensitive, community-based educational interventions which can be used as a framework for future projects to improved asthma outcomes.Databases searched included Medline, PubMED, EBSCOhost, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar and ERIC. Papers published in English from January 1990 to January 2012 were reviewed.Health system policies, insurer compensation patterns, clinician attitudes and cultural values/folk remedies in the Puerto Rican community represent barriers to effective asthma management, the use of controller medication and the implementation of educational interventions. In addition, genetic factors involving the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene, which impair the response to albuterol, appear to contribute to poorer outcomes in Puerto Rican asthmatics. In contrast, several comprehensive, community-based, culturally sensitive educational interventions such as Controlling Asthma in American Cities Project (CAACP), the Racial and Ethnic Approach to Community Health in the US Program and Healthy Hoops programs (REACH) have been described.We believe that culturally sensitive community-based asthma education programs can serve as models for programs targeted toward Puerto Ricans to help decrease asthma morbidity. Moreover, greater sensitivity to Puerto Rican mores and folk remedies on the part of healthcare providers may improve the patient-clinician rapport and, hence, asthma outcomes. Finally, given ethnically based differences in pharmacogenomics, clinical trials targeting the Puerto Rican population may help to better define optimal asthma medication regimens in this ethnic group.
Immunodepletion plasma proteomics by tripleTOF 5600 and Orbitrap elite/LTQ-Orbitrap Velos/Q exactive mass spectrometers. - Journal of proteome research
Plasma proteomic experiments performed rapidly and economically using several of the latest high-resolution mass spectrometers were compared. Four quantitative hyperfractionated plasma proteomics experiments were analyzed in replicates by two AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600 and three Thermo Scientific Orbitrap (Elite/LTQ-Orbitrap Velos/Q Exactive) instruments. Each experiment compared two iTRAQ isobaric-labeled immunodepleted plasma proteomes, provided as 30 labeled peptide fractions, and 480 LC-MS/MS runs delivered >250 GB of data in 2 months. Several analysis algorithms were compared. At 1% false discovery rate, the relative comparative findings concluded that the Thermo Scientific Q Exactive Mass Spectrometer resulted in the highest number of identified proteins and unique sequences with iTRAQ quantitation. The confidence of iTRAQ fold-change for each protein is dependent on the overall ion statistics (Mascot Protein Score) attainable by each instrument. The benchmarking also suggested how to further improve the mass spectrometry parameters and HPLC conditions. Our findings highlight the special challenges presented by the low abundance peptide ions of iTRAQ plasma proteome because the dynamic range of plasma protein abundance is uniquely high compared with cell lysates, necessitating high instrument sensitivity.
Histone 3.3 participates in a self-sustaining cascade of apoptosis that contributes to the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. - American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Shifts in the gene expression of nuclear protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a progressive disease that is characterized by extensive lung inflammation and apoptosis, are common; however, the extent of the elevation of the core histones, which are the major components of nuclear proteins and their consequences in COPD, has not been characterized, which is important because extracellular histones are cytotoxic to endothelial and airway epithelial cells.To investigate the role of extracellular histones in COPD disease progression.We analyzed the nuclear lung proteomes of ex-smokers with and without the disease. Further studies on the consequences of H3.3 were also performed.A striking finding was a COPD-specific eightfold increase of hyperacetylated histone H3.3. The hyperacetylation renders H3.3 resistant to proteasomal degradation despite ubiquitination; when combined with the reduction in proteasome activity that is known for COPD, this resistance helps account for the increased levels of H3.3. Using anti-H3 antibodies, we found H3.3 in the airway lumen, alveolar fluid, and plasma of COPD samples. H3.3 was cytotoxic to lung structural cells via a mechanism that involves the perturbation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and mitochondrial toxicity. We used the primary human airway epithelial cells and found that the antibodies to either the C or N terminus of H3 could partially reverse H3.3 toxicity.Our data indicate that there is an uncontrolled positive feedback loop in which the damaged cells release acetylated H3.3, which causes more damage, adds H3.3 release, and contributes toward the disease progression.
Assessment of two immunodepletion methods: off-target effects and variations in immunodepletion efficiency may confound plasma proteomics. - Journal of proteome research
Immunodepletion of abundant plasma proteins increases the depth of proteome penetration by mass spectrometry. However, the nature and extent of immunodepletion and the effect of off-target depletion on the quantitative comparison of the residual proteins have not been critically addressed. We performed mass spectrometry label-free quantitation to determine which proteins were immunodepleted and by how much. Two immunodepletion resins were compared: Qproteome (Qiagen) which removes albumin+immunoglobulins and Seppro IgY14+SuperMix (Sigma-Aldrich) which removes 14 target proteins plus a number of unidentified proteins. Plasma collected by P100 proteomic plasma collection tubes (BD) from 20 human subjects was individually immunodepleted to minimize potential variability, prior to pooling. The abundant proteins were quantified better when using only albumin+immunoglobulins removal (Qproteome), while lower abundance proteins were evaluated better using exhaustive immunodepletion (Seppro IgY14+SuperMix). The latter resin removed at least 155 proteins, 38% of the plasma proteome in protein number and 94% of plasma protein in mass. The depth of immunodepletion likely accounts for the effectiveness of this resin in revealing low abundance proteins. However, the more profound immunodepletion achieved with the IgY14+SuperMix may lead to false-positive fold-changes between comparison groups if the reproducibility and efficiency of the depletion of a given protein are not considered.
Respiratory epithelial cell responses to cigarette smoke: the unfolded protein response. - Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics
Cigarette smoking exposes the respiratory epithelium to highly toxic, reactive oxygen nitrogen species which damage lung proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the cell organelle in which all secreted and membrane proteins are processed. Accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins in the ER, a condition termed ER stress, activates a complex cellular process termed the unfolded protein responses (UPR). The UPR acts to restore cellular protein homeostasis by regulating all aspects of protein metabolism including: protein translation and syntheses; protein folding; and protein degradation. However, activation of the UPR may also induce signaling pathways which induce inflammation and cell apoptosis. This review discusses the role of UPR in the respiratory epithelial cell response to cigarette smoke and the pathogenesis of lung diseases like COPD.Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mucosal eosinophilia: prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in symptoms and endoscopic findings in adults over 10 years in an urban hospital. - Journal of clinical gastroenterology
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with mucosal accumulation of eosinophils. There is a paucity of data among racial/ethnic groups other than white patients.To determine if racial/ethnic differences exist in clinical presentation, endoscopic appearance, and biopsy results in adult patients (age â‰¥18 y) with mucosal eosinophilia and examine the prevalence of mucosal eosinophilia at an urban hospital over a 10-year period.Pathology reports searched at Temple University Hospital 2000 to 2009; key words: "eosinophils", "esophagus", and "biopsy". Clinical and endoscopic records reviewed on patients with â‰¥15 eosinophils/high power field.A total of 64 adults (average age, 41 y; 62% male patients; 81% white, 12% black, and 6% Hispanic). White patients were significantly younger (P=0.03). Adult mucosal eosinophilia diagnosis increased by 833% (3 in 2000 to 25 in 2009); black/Hispanic diagnosis increased by 500% (1 in 2000 to 5 in 2009). Solid food dysphagia was more common among white patients (72% vs. 0.33%, P=0.02). Reflux symptoms were more common in black/Hispanic patients (42% vs. 22%, P=0.16). Normal endoscopy (42% vs. 13%, P=0.04) and reflux changes (41% vs. 21%, P=0.16) were more common in black/Hispanic patients. Furrows (42% vs. 8%, P=0.04) and rings (46% vs. 0%, P=0.002) were more common in white patients. Average eosinophil counts did not vary between groups.Mucosal eosinophilia presents with significant differences between racial/ethnic groups in age at onset, symptoms at presentation, and endoscopic features. Differences may reflect different phenotypes of the same disease or separate disease entities.
Requirement of FADD, NEMO, and BAX/BAK for aberrant mitochondrial function in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced necrosis. - Molecular and cellular biology
Necroptosis represents a form of alternative programmed cell death that is dependent on the kinase RIP1. RIP1-dependent necroptotic death manifests as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria and is accompanied by loss of ATP biogenesis and eventual dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-Î±)-induced necroptosis requires the adaptor proteins FADD and NEMO. FADD was found to mediate formation of the TNF-Î±-induced pronecrotic RIP1-RIP3 kinase complex, whereas the IÎºB Kinase (IKK) subunit NEMO appears to function downstream of RIP1-RIP3. Interestingly, loss of RelA potentiated TNF-Î±-dependent necroptosis, indicating that NEMO regulates necroptosis independently of NF-ÎºB. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that the overexpression of antioxidants alleviates ROS elevation and necroptosis. Finally, elimination of BAX and BAK or overexpression of Bcl-x(L) protects cells from necroptosis at a later step. These findings provide evidence that mitochondria play an amplifying role in inflammation-induced necroptosis.
Heightened endoplasmic reticulum stress in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the role of Nrf2-regulated proteasomal activity. - American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an important regulator of lung antioxidant defenses, declines in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, Nrf2 also regulates the proteasome system that degrades damaged and misfolded proteins. Because accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis, Nrf2 may potentially prevent ER stress-mediated apoptosis in COPD.To determine whether Nrf2-regulated proteasome function affects ER stress-mediated apoptosis in COPD.We assessed the expression of Nrf2, Nrf2-dependent proteasomal subunits, proteasomal activity, markers of ER stress, and apoptosis in emphysematous lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) as well as peripheral lung tissues from normal control subjects and patients with COPD.Compared with wild-type mice, emphysematous lungs of CS-exposed Nrf2-deficient mice exhibited markedly lower proteasomal activity and elevated markers of ER stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, compared with normal control subjects, lungs of patients with mild and advanced COPD showed a marked decrease in the expression of Nrf2-regulated proteasomal subunits and total proteasomal activity. However, they were associated with greater levels of ER stress and apoptosis markers. In vitro studies have demonstrated that enhancing proteasomal activity in Beas2B cells either by sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, or overexpression of Nrf2-regulated proteasomal subunit PSMB6, significantly inhibited cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-induced ER stress and cell death.Impaired Nrf2 signaling causes significant decline in proteasomal activity and heightens ER stress response in lungs of patients with COPD and CS-exposed mice. Accordingly, pharmacological approaches that augment Nrf2 activity may protect against COPD progression by both up-regulating antioxidant defenses and relieving ER stress.
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3401 N Broad St 7Th Flr Parkinson Pavilion Philadelphia, PA 19140
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