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Stent implantation into the tracheo-bronchial system in rabbits: histopathologic sequelae in bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents. - Molecular and cellular pediatrics
Stent implantation into the tracheo-bronchial system may be life-saving in selected pediatric patients with otherwise intractable stenosis of the upper airways. Following implantation, significant tissue proliferation may occur, requiring re-interventions. We sought to evaluate the effect of immunosuppressive coating of the stents on the extent of tissue proliferation in an animal model.Bare metal and sirolimus-coated stents (Bx Sonic and Cypher Select, Johnson & Johnson, Cordis) were implanted into non-stenotic lower airways of New Zealand white rabbits (weight 3.1 to 4.8Â kg). Three stents with sirolimus coating and six bare metal stents could be analyzed by means of histology and immunohistochemistry 12Â months after implantation.On a macroscopic evaluation, all stents were partially covered with a considerable amount of whitish tissue. Histologically, these proliferations contained fiber-rich connective tissue and some fibromuscular cells without significant differences between both stent types. The superficial tissue layer was formed by typical respiratory epithelium and polygonal cells. Abundant lymphocyte infiltrations and moderate granulocyte infiltrations were found in both groups correspondingly, whereas foreign-body reaction was more pronounced around sirolimus-eluting stents.After stent implantation in the tracheo-bronchial system of rabbits, we found tissue reactions comparable to those seen after stent implantation into the vascular system. There was no difference between coated and uncoated stents with regard to quality and quantity of tissue proliferation. We found, however, a significantly different inflammatory reaction with a more pronounced foreign-body reaction in sirolimus-coated stents. In our small series, drug-eluting stents did not exhibit any benefit over bare metal stents in an experimental setting.
Identification of six new susceptibility loci for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. - Nature genetics
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we assessed associations of 11 million genetic variants with EOC risk from 15,437 cases unselected for family history and 30,845 controls and from 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers (3,096 with ovarian cancer), and we combined the results in a meta-analysis. This new study design yielded increased statistical power, leading to the discovery of six new EOC susceptibility loci. Variants at 1p36 (nearest gene, WNT4), 4q26 (SYNPO2), 9q34.2 (ABO) and 17q11.2 (ATAD5) were associated with EOC risk, and at 1p34.3 (RSPO1) and 6p22.1 (GPX6) variants were specifically associated with the serous EOC subtype, all with P < 5 Ã— 10(-8). Incorporating these variants into risk assessment tools will improve clinical risk predictions for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent targeted toward activated platelets allows in vivo detection of thrombosis and monitoring of thrombolysis. - Circulation
Platelets are the key to thrombus formation and play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. Noninvasive imaging of activated platelets would be of great clinical interest. Here, we evaluate the ability of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent consisting of microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs) and a single-chain antibody targeting ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa to image carotid artery thrombi and atherosclerotic plaques.Anti-LIBS antibody or control antibody was conjugated to 1-microm MPIOs (LIBS MPIO/control MPIO). Nonocclusive mural thrombi were induced in mice with 6% ferric chloride. MRI (at 9.4 T) was performed once before and repeatedly in 12-minute-long sequences after LIBS MPIO/control MPIO injection. After 36 minutes, a significant signal void, corresponding to MPIO accumulation, was observed with LIBS MPIOs but not control MPIOs (P<0.05). After thrombolysis, in LIBS MPIO-injected mice, the signal void subsided, indicating successful thrombolysis. On histology, the MPIO content of the thrombus, as well as thrombus size, correlated significantly with LIBS MPIO-induced signal void (both P<0.01). After ex vivo incubation of symptomatic human carotid plaques, MRI and histology confirmed binding to areas of platelet adhesion/aggregation for LIBS MPIOs but not for control MPIOs.LIBS MPIOs allow in vivo MRI of activated platelets with excellent contrast properties and monitoring of thrombolytic therapy. Furthermore, activated platelets were detected on the surface of symptomatic human carotid plaques by ex vivo MRI. This approach represents a novel noninvasive technique allowing the detection and quantification of platelet-containing thrombi.
Immobilized DNA aptamers used as potent attractors for porcine endothelial precursor cells. - Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A
Because of their insufficient biocompatibility and high thrombogenicity, small diameter artificial vascular prostheses still do not show a satisfactory patency rate. In vitro endothelialization of artificial grafts before implantation has been established experimentally years ago, but, this procedure is extremely time consuming and expensive. This study deals with the coating of graft surfaces with capture molecules (aptamers) for circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), mimicking a prohoming substrate to fish out EPCs from the bloodstream after implantation and to create an autologous functional endothelium. Using the SELEX technology, aptamers with a high affinity to EPCs were identified, isolated, and grafted onto polymeric discs using a blood compatible star-PEG coating. A porcine in vitro model that demonstrates the specific adhesion of EPCs and their differentiation into vital endothelial-like cells within 10 days in cell culture is presented. We suggest that the rapid adhesion of EPCs to aptamer-coated implants could be useful to promote endothelial wound healing and to prevent increased neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that future in vivo self-endothelialization of blood contacting implants by homing factor mimetic capture molecules for EPCs may bring revolutionary new perspectives towards clinical applications of stem cell and tissue engineering strategies.(c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Treatment with bovine surfactant in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in children: a randomized multicenter study. - Intensive care medicine
To determine whether bovine surfactant given in cases of severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) improves oxygenation.Single-center study with 19 patients, followed by a multicenter randomized comparison of surfactant with a standardized treatment algorithm. Primary endpoint PaO(2)/FIO(2) at 48 h, secondary endpoints: PaO(2)/FIO(2) at 2, 4, 12, and 24 h, survival, survival without rescue, days on ventilator, subgroups analyzed by analysis of variance to identify patients who might benefit from surfactant.Multicenter study in 19 reference centers for ARDS.Children after the 44th postconceptional week and under 14 years old, admitted for at least 4 h, ventilated for 12-120 h, and without heart failure or chronic lung disease. In the multicenter study 35 patients were recruited; 20 were randomized to the surfactant group and 15 to the nonsurfactant group. Decreasing recruitment of patients led to a preliminary end of this study.Administration of 100 mg/kg bovine surfactant intratracheally under continuous ventilation and PEEP, as soon as the PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio dropped to less than 100 for 2 h (in the pilot study increments of 50 mg/kg as long as the PaO(2)/FIO(2) did not increase by 20%). A second equivalent dose within 48 h was permitted.In the pilot study the PaO(2)/FIO(2) increased by a mean of 100 at 48 h (n=19). A higher PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio was observed in the surfactant group 2 h after the first dose (58 from baseline vs. 9), at 48 h there was a trend towards a higher ratio (38 from baseline vs. 22). The rate of rescue therapy was significantly lower in the surfactant group. Outcome criteria were not affected by a second surfactant dose (n=11). A significant difference in PaO(2)/FIO(2) in favor of surfactant at 48 h was found in the subgroup with an initial PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio higher than 65 and in patients without pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS. Surfactant therapy in severe ARDS improves oxygenation immediately after administration. This improvement is sustained only in the subgroup of patients without pneumonia and that with an initial PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio higher than 65
Reduced levels of amyloid beta-peptide antibody in Alzheimer disease. - Neurology
To investigate whether it was possible to detect the presence and different levels of naturally occurring anti-beta-amyloid (Abeta) antibodies in the CSF of patients with AD and age-matched controls by employing a sensitive ELISA.Immunization with preaggregated amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta(1-42)) and administration of antibodies against Abeta into amyloid precursor protein APP(V717F)- transgenic mice (an animal model of AD) have recently been reported to dramatically reduce amyloid plaque deposition, neuritic dystrophy, and astrogliosis, most likely by enhancing Abeta clearance from brain.A sensitive ELISA was performed to detect levels of naturally occurring anti-Abeta antibodies in the CSF of patients with AD and age-matched controls. Additionally, an immunoprecipitation assay was performed to confirm that naturally occurring anti-Abeta antibodies also exist in the human blood.- Naturally occurring antibodies directed against Abeta were found in the CSF and plasma of patients with AD and healthy control subjects. Moreover, CSF anti-Abeta antibody titers are significantly lower in patients with AD compared with healthy control subjects.Naturally occurring antibodies directed against Abeta exist in human CSF and plasma. The CSF anti-Abeta antibody titers may be helpful in better understanding the effects of future immunologic therapies for AD.
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