4001 California 104
Ione CA 95640
Medical School: Other - Unknown
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License #: 0034C
Taxonomy Codes:103T00000X 103TP0016X
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Effect of tamoxifen on fatty degeneration and atrophy of rotator cuff muscles in chronic rotator cuff tear: An animal model study. - Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles is an irreversible change resulting from chronic rotator cuff tear and is associated with poor clinical outcomes following rotator cuff repair. We evaluated the effect of Tamoxifen, a competitive estrogen receptor inhibitor, on fatty degeneration using a mouse model for chronic rotator cuff tear. Sixteen adult mice were divided into two diet groups (Tamoxifen vs. Regular) and subjected to surgical creation of a large rotator cuff tear and suprascapular nerve transection in their left shoulder with the right shoulder serving as a control. The rotator cuff muscles were harvested at 16 weeks and subjected to histology and RT-PCR for adipogenic and myogenic markers. Histology showed substantially decreased atrophy and endomysial inflammation in Tamoxifen group, but no significant differences in the amount of intramuscular adipocytes and lipid droplets compared to the Regular group. With RT-PCR, the operated shoulders showed significant upregulation of myogenin and PPAR-Î³, and downregulation of myostatin compared to the nonsurgical shoulder. No significant differences of gene expression were found between the two diet groups. Our study demonstrated that tamoxifen diet leads to decreased muscle atrophy and inflammatory changes following chronic rotator cuff tear, but has no apparent effect on adipogenesis. Â© 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.Â© 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Posterior Displacement of Supraspinatus Central Tendon Observed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Useful Preoperative Indicator of Rotator Cuff Tear Characteristics. - Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association
To characterize the orientation of the normal supraspinatus central tendon and describe the displacement patterns of the central tendon in rotator cuff tears using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method.We performed a retrospective MRI and chart review of 183 patients with a rotator cuff tear (cuff tear group), 52 with a labral tear but no rotator cuff tear (labral tear group), and 74 with a normal shoulder (normal group). The orientation of the supraspinatus central tendon relative to the bicipital groove was evaluated based on axial MRI and was numerically represented by the shortest distance from the lateral extension line of the central tendon to the bicipital groove. Tear size, fatty degeneration, and involvement of the anterior supraspinatus were evaluated to identify the factors associated with orientation changes.The mean distance from the bicipital groove to the central tendon line was 0.7 mm and 1.3 mm in the normal group and labral tear group, respectively. Full-thickness cuff tears involving the anterior supraspinatus showed a significantly greater distance (17.7 mm) than those sparing the anterior supraspinatus (4.9 mm, PÂ = .001). Fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus was significantly correlated with the distance (PÂ = .006). Disruption of the anterior supraspinatus and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus were independent predictors of posterior displacement.The supraspinatus central tendon has a constant orientation toward the bicipital groove in normal shoulders, and the central tendon is frequently displaced posteriorly in full-thickness rotator cuff tears involving the anterior leading edge of the supraspinatus. The degree of posterior displacement is proportional to tear size and severity of fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle. A simple and quick assessment of the central tendon orientation on preoperative MRI can be a useful indicator of tear characteristics, potentially providing insight into the intraoperative repair strategy.Level IV, diagnostic case-control study.Copyright Â© 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Functional outcomes after shoulder resection: the patient's perspective. - Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]
Resection arthroplasty is a salvage procedure used for the treatment of deep-seated infections after total shoulder arthroplasty, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Previous studies have reported a 50% to 66% rate of pain relief after resection arthroplasty but with significant functional limitations. Our study aimed to qualify the perspective of the patients on their limitations and satisfaction with resection arthroplasty.A retrospective record review of resection arthroplasties performed between September 2003 and December 2012 yielded 14 patients, and 7 completed the survey. The patients completed surveys with the focus on the "patient perspective." Functional scores, including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), DASH work, and DASH sports, were determined.Pain reduction and functional outcomes were similar to past reports of resection arthroplasty. Five of the 7 patients (71%) reported satisfaction with their resection arthroplasty, and 6 of the 7 patients (86%) would undergo the procedure again if given the choice. Five of the 7 patients (71%) were able to most of activities of daily living.Patients in our study were generally satisfied with their resection arthroplasty. Resection arthroplasty is a reasonable option for treatment of deep-seated periprosthetic infections or for patients with multiple previous failed procedures for total shoulder arthroplasty, hemiarthroplasty. and reverse shoulder arthroplasty.Copyright Â© 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ulnar neuropathy as a result of anconeus epitrochlearis. - Orthopedics
After carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common compression neuropathy in the upper extremity. Various sites of ulnar nerve compression at the elbow exist, with the most common being between the 2 heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris. Other potential sites include the arcade of Struthers, the space between Osborne's ligament and the medial ulnar collateral ligament, the medial epicondyle, the medial head of the triceps, and the medial intermuscular septum. The anconeus epitrochlearis, an anomalous muscle that runs between the medial aspect of the olecranon and the medial epicondyle, is found in up to 28% of cadavers. Although it is far less common, it must be considered when evaluating a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome. The authors report a 19-year-old man with a 2-month history of atraumatic left elbow pain accompanied by distal motor and sensory symptoms that significantly affected his activities of daily living and quality of life. After a short course of conservative management, surgical excision of the anomalous muscle, along with decompression of the ulnar nerve, was performed because of progression of symptoms. The patient had immediate improvement in subjective symptoms and strength on removal of the anconeus epitrochlearis. As shown in this case report, recovery of both motor and sensory nerve function can be achieved if the source of compression is an anomalous muscle and is treated with early surgical removal.Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
The role of muscle loading on bone (Re)modeling at the developing enthesis. - PloS one
Muscle forces are necessary for the development and maintenance of a mineralized skeleton. Removal of loads leads to malformed bones and impaired musculoskeletal function due to changes in bone (re)modeling. In the current study, the development of a mineralized junction at the interface between muscle and bone was examined under normal and impaired loading conditions. Unilateral mouse rotator cuff muscles were paralyzed using botulinum toxin A at birth. Control groups consisted of contralateral shoulders injected with saline and a separate group of normal mice. It was hypothesized that muscle unloading would suppress bone formation and enhance bone resorption at the enthesis, and that the unloading-induced bony defects could be rescued by suppressing osteoclast activity. In order to modulate osteoclast activity, mice were injected with the bisphosphonate alendronate. Bone formation was measured at the tendon enthesis using alizarin and calcein fluorescent labeling of bone surfaces followed by quantitative histomorphometry of histologic sections. Bone volume and architecture was measured using micro computed tomography. Osteoclast surface was determined via quantitative histomorphometry of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase stained histologic sections. Muscle unloading resulted in delayed initiation of endochondral ossification at the enthesis, but did not impair bone formation rate. Unloading led to severe defects in bone volume and trabecular bone architecture. These defects were partially rescued by suppression of osteoclast activity through alendronate treatment, and the effect of alendronate was dose dependent. Similarly, bone formation rate was increased with increasing alendronate dose across loading groups. The bony defects caused by unloading were therefore likely due to maintained high osteoclast activity, which normally decreases from neonatal through mature timepoints. These results have important implications for the treatment of muscle unloading conditions such as neonatal brachial plexus palsy, which results in shoulder paralysis at birth and subsequent defects in the rotator cuff enthesis and humeral head.
Factors affecting satisfaction and shoulder function in patients with a recurrent rotator cuff tear. - The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
It is widely accepted that most patients treated with rotator cuff repair do well regardless of the integrity of the repair. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to reexamine this concept and identify the factors affecting the outcomes of patients with a recurrent tear.A cohort of patients who had been treated with rotator cuff repair completed a survey regarding satisfaction with the operatively treated shoulder, physical activity, and shoulder function. Ultrasonography was performed to determine rotator cuff integrity. Patients were divided into three age categories: younger than fifty-five years, fifty-five to sixty-five years, and sixty-six years or older. The relationships of the outcomes to patient age, repair integrity, and other demographic factors were analyzed.Forty-seven (26%) of the 180 enrolled patients had a retear, defined as a full-thickness defect. In each age category, the satisfaction, ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons), and SST (Simple Shoulder Test) scores in the retear group were significantly poorer than those in the no-retear group (p < 0.05). Within the retear group, all three scores were significantly better in the oldest age category (p < 0.05); there were no significant differences among the age categories within the no-retear group (p > 0.05). Simple regression analysis showed that younger age, a Workers' Compensation claim, and lower education level were significant predictors of poorer scores in patients with a retear (p < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis of the retear group showed that (1) lower education level and a Workers' Compensation claim were independent predictors of a poorer satisfaction score; (2) lower education level, younger age, and a Workers' Compensation claim were independent predictors of a poorer ASES score; and (3) lower education level was the only independent predictor of a poorer SST score (p < 0.01 for all).The presence of a retear negatively affected the clinical outcomes following rotator cuff repair. This finding refutes the widely held concept that patients typically do well regardless of the repair integrity following rotator cuff repair. In patients with a retear, nonanatomic factors including younger age, lower education level, and a Workers' Compensation claim were associated with poorer outcomes.
Elbow arthroscopic surgery update for sports medicine conditions. - The American journal of sports medicine
Elbow arthroscopic surgery can now effectively treat a variety of conditions that affect athletes. Advances in instrumentation, increased surgeon familiarity, and expanded indications have led to significant growth in elbow arthroscopic surgery in the past few decades. While positioning, portal placement, and specific instruments may vary among surgeons, anatomic considerations guide surgical approaches to minimize neurovascular compromise. Arthroscopic procedures vary in difficulty, and surgeons should follow stepwise advancement with experience. Removal of loose bodies, debridement of synovial plicae, and debridement of the extensor carpi radialis brevis for lateral epicondylitis are considered simple procedures for novice elbow arthroscopic surgeons. More advanced procedures include management of osteochondritis dissecans, valgus extension overload in the throwing athlete, and capsular release. With proper technique, a variety of athletic elbow conditions can be treated arthroscopically with predictable results and minimal morbidity.
Glenoid implant orientation and cement failure in total shoulder arthroplasty: a finite element analysis. - Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]
To minimize glenoid implant loosening in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), the ideal surgical procedure achieves correction to neutral version, complete implant-bone contact, and bone stock preservation. These goals, however, are not always achievable, and guidelines to prioritize their impact are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the degree of glenoid correction affects potential cement failure.Eight patient-specific computer models were created for 4 TSA scenarios with different permutations of retroversion correction and implant-bone contact. Two bone models were used: a homogeneous cortical bone model and a heterogeneous cortical-trabecular bone model. A 750-N load was simulated, and cement stress was calculated. The risk of cement mantle fracture was reported as the percentage of cement stress exceeding the material endurance limit.Orienting the glenoid implant in retroversion resulted in the highest risk of cement fracture in a homogeneous bone model (P < .05). In the heterogeneous bone model, complete correction resulted in the highest risk of failure (P = .0028). A positive correlation (Ï = 0.901) was found between the risk of cement failure and amount of exposed trabecular bone.Incorporating trabecular bone into the model changed the effect of implant orientation on cement failure. As exposed trabecular bone increased, the risk of cement fracture increased. This may be due to shifting the load-bearing support underneath the cement from cortical bone to trabecular bone.Copyright Â© 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Glenoid articular conformity affects stress distributions in total shoulder arthroplasty. - Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.]
The stress applied to the glenoid component in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) remains an important concern because of the risk of wear and loosening. The purpose of this study was to determine the stress pattern in the glenoid component with 3 different surface designs.Computer models of 9 scapulae of patients scheduled for TSA were created from computerized tomography images. Each glenoid was virtually reamed, and 3 different glenoid component designs (conforming, nonconforming, and hybrid) were placed. Using finite element analysis, superior translation of the humeral head was modeled. Maximum stress and shear stress were measured at 3 different locations in the glenoid component: center, transition, and superior regions.All 3 designs showed a similar level of maximum stress at the center and transition regions, while the maximum stress at the superior periphery was significantly higher in the conforming design than in the other 2 designs (P = .0017). The conforming design showed significantly higher shear stress at the superior periphery (P < .0001).Stress from periphery loading is higher than from the center and transition region regardless of component design and is highest in the conforming design. The stress at the transition region of the hybrid design was not higher than the other 2 designs. The hybrid design has favorable characteristics based on its low stress at the periphery and greater contact area with the humeral head at the center.Basic Science Study, Biomechanical Computer Simulation Study.Copyright Â© 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Glutamine. - World review of nutrition and dietetics
Glutamine (GLN) has been shown to be a key pharmaconutrient in the body's response to stress and injury. It exerts its protective effects via multiple mechanisms, including direct protection of cells and tissue from injury, attenuation inflammation, and preservation of metabolic function. Data support GLN as an ideal pharmacologic intervention to prevent or treat multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after sepsis or other injuries in the intensive care unit (ICU) population. A large and growing body of clinical data shows that GLN can be a life-saving intervention in well-defined critically ill patient groups. Recent data has helped clarify that GLN shows the greatest benefit when administered at doses greater than 0.35 g/kg/day, with optimal benefit potentially occurring at 0.5 g/kg/day. Further, it appears that when possible GLN should be administered for longer than 5 days and more ideally for the entire period of ICU or hospital stay. Finally, ongoing clinical trials may prove GLN administration in the first 24-48 h following ICU admission and via both the enteral and parenteral route are key to optimizing patient outcomes with this therapy.Copyright Â© 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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4001 California 104 Ione, CA 95640
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