2023 Carothers Rd Ste 409
Franklin TN 37067
Medical School: University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill School Of Medicine - 1981
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: Yes
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 21135
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Awards & Recognitions
Dr. William Reid is associated with these group practices
|HCPCS Code||Description||Average Price||Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
|HCPCS Code:99215||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$241.66||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99214||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$151.54||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99213||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$105.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:36415||Description:Routine venipuncture||Average Price:$18.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:85025||Description:Complete cbc w/auto diff wbc||Average Price:$22.50||Average Price Allowed
HCPCS Code Definitions
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of low complexity. Counseling and coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of low to moderate severity. Typically, 15 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A detailed history; A detailed examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 25 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A comprehensive history; A comprehensive examination; Medical decision making of high complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 40 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
Medical Malpractice Cases
Medical Board Sanctions
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Reid has made to other doctors
Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). - Insects
Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a "per-bug" basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 - 0.692) ngÂ·bug(-1)] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 - 0.724) ngÂ·bug(-1)] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 - 0.386) ngÂ·bug(-1)]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 - 0.176) ngÂ·mg(-1)], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 - 0.134) ngÂ·mg(-1)], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019-0.102) ngÂ·mg(-)Â¹]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.
Temporal Gene Expression Profiles of Pre Blood-Fed Adult Females Immediately Following Eclosion in the Southern House Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus. - International journal of biological sciences
Prior to acquisition of the first host blood meal, the anautogenous mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus requires a period of time in order to prepare for the blood feeding and, later, vitellogenesis. In the current study, we conducted whole transcriptome analyses of adult female Culex mosquitoes to identify genes that may be necessary for both taking of the blood meal, and processing of the blood meal in adult female mosquitoes Cx. quinquefasciatus. We examined temporal expression of genes for the periods of post eclosion and prior to the female freely taking a blood meal. We further evaluated the temporal expression of certain genes for the periods after the taking of a blood meal to identify genes that may be necessary for both the taking of the blood meal, and the processing of the blood meal. We found that adult females required a minimum of 48 h post-eclosion before they freely took their first blood meal. We hypothesized that gene expression signatures were altered in the mosquitoes before blood feeding in preparation for the acquisition of the blood meal through changes in multiple gene expression. To identify the genes involved in the acquisition of blood feeding, we quantified the gene expression levels of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus using RNA Seq throughout a pre-blooding period from 2 to 72 h post eclosion at 12 h intervals. A total of 325 genes were determined to be differentially-expressed throughout the pre-blooding period, with the majority of differentially-expressed genes occurring between the 2 h and 12 h post-eclosion time points. Among the up-regulated genes were salivary proteins, cytochrome P450s, odorant-binding proteins, and proteases, while the majority of the down-regulated genes were hypothetical or cuticular genes. In addition, Trypsin was found to be up-regulated immediately following blood feeding, while trypsin and chymotrypsin were up-regulated at 48h and 60h post blood-feeding, respectively, suggesting that these proteases are likely involved in the digestion of the blood meal. Overall, this study reviewed multiple genes that might be involved in the adult female competency for blood meal acquisition in mosquitoes.
Lack of neuroinflammation in the HIV-1 transgenic rat: an [(18)F]-DPA714 PET imaging study. - Journal of neuroinflammation
HIV-associated neuroinflammation is believed to be a major contributing factor in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In this study, we used micropositron emission tomography (PET) imaging to quantify neuroinflammation in HIV-1 transgenic rat (Tg), a small animal model of HIV, known to develop neurological and behavioral problems.Dynamic [(18)F]DPA-714 PET imaging was performed in Tg and age-matched wild-type (WT) rats in three age groups: 3-, 9-, and 16-month-old animals. As a positive control for neuroinflammation, we performed unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA) in a separate group of WT rats. To confirm our findings, we performed multiplex immunofluorescent staining for Iba1 and we measured cytokine/chemokine levels in brain lysates of Tg and WT rats at different ages.[(18)F]DPA-714 uptake in HIV-1 Tg rat brains was generally higher than in age-matched WT rats but this was not statistically significant in any age group. [(18)F]DPA-714 uptake in the QA-lesioned rats was significantly higher ipsilateral to the lesion compared to contralateral side indicating neuroinflammatory changes. Iba1 immunofluorescence showed no significant differences in microglial activation between the Tg and WT rats, while the QA-lesioned rats showed significant activation. Finally, cytokine/chemokine levels in brain lysates of the Tg rats and WT rats were not significantly different.Microglial activation might not be the primary mechanism for neuropathology in the HIV-1 Tg rats. Although [(18)F]DPA-714 is a good biomarker of neuroinflammation, it cannot be reliably used as an in vivo biomarker of neurodegeneration in the HIV-1 Tg rat.
Linking regional variation of epibiotic bacterial diversity and trophic ecology in a new species of Kiwaidae (Decapoda, Anomura) from East Scotia Ridge (Antarctica) hydrothermal vents. - MicrobiologyOpen
We analyzed the diversity of bacterial epibionts and trophic ecology of a new species of Kiwa yeti crab discovered at two hydrothermal vent fields (E2 and E9) on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a combination of 454 pyrosequencing, Sanger sequencing, and stable isotope analysis. The Kiwa epibiont communities were dominated by Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria. About 454 sequencing of the epibionts on 15 individual Kiwa specimen revealed large regional differences between the two hydrothermal vent fields: at E2, the bacterial community on the Kiwa ventral setae was dominated (up to 75%) by Gammaproteobacteria, whereas at E9 Epsilonproteobacteria dominated (up to 98%). Carbon stable isotope analysis of both Kiwa and the bacterial epibionts also showed distinct differences between E2 and E9 in mean and variability. Both stable isotope and sequence data suggest a dominance of different carbon fixation pathways of the epibiont communities at the two vent fields. At E2, epibionts were putatively fixing carbon via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham and reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle, while at E9 the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle dominated. Co-varying epibiont diversity and isotope values at E2 and E9 also present further support for the hypothesis that epibionts serve as a food source for Kiwa.Â© 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Emergency ECT in an incapacitated, medically compromised patient with Huntington's disease. - Journal of psychiatric practice
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is infrequently considered an "emergency" medical procedure; however, there are certain conditions in which there is considerable urgency to initiate ECT. For example, prompt administration of ECT to treat neuroleptic malignant syndrome and malignant catatonia is necessary to improve a patient's overall prognosis and potentially save the patient's life. In this case, a 57-year-old woman with Huntington's disease was admitted to our medical intensive care unit for failure to thrive due to severe psychotic symptoms. Prior to her admission, the patient had become increasingly psychotic and agitated, resulting in her refusal and/or inability to eat. Efforts to treat her severe psychiatric and behavioral symptoms with various psychopharmacological strategies were largely unsuccessful. As the patient's physical health continued to decline, with loss of approximately 35 pounds over 2 months, her family began making arrangements to transfer her to a hospice facility. The day before she was to be transferred, the psychiatry consultation-liaison service recommended ECT. Unfortunately, this recommendation was complicated because the patient was unable to provide consent. This case report describes the legal and administrative process used to ethically and legally administer ECT without consent from the patient or a court-appointed guardian in order to treat a life-threatening condition. To the best of our knowledge, this report documents the first time ECT has been granted "medical emergency" status in Texas.
Genome of the house fly, Musca domestica L., a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment. - Genome biology
Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are mechanical vectors of more than 100 devastating diseases that have severe consequences for human and animal health. House fly larvae play a vital role as decomposers of animal wastes, and thus live in intimate association with many animal pathogens.We have sequenced and analyzed the genome of the house fly using DNA from female flies. The sequenced genome is 691 Mb. Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment. There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies. Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation.This represents the first genome sequence of an insect that lives in intimate association with abundant animal pathogens. The house fly genome provides a rich resource for enabling work on innovative methods of insect control, for understanding the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, genetic adaptation to high pathogen loads, and for exploring the basic biology of this important pest. The genome of this species will also serve as a close out-group to Drosophila in comparative genomic studies.
Imaging dopaminergic dysfunction as a surrogate marker of neuropathology in a small-animal model of HIV. - Molecular imaging
The dopaminergic system is especially vulnerable to the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, rendering dopaminergic deficits early surrogate markers of HIV-associated neuropathology. We quantified dopamine D2/3 receptors in young HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) (n â€Š=â€Š 6) and age-matched control rats (n â€Š=â€Š 7) and adult Tg (n â€Š=â€Š 5) and age-matched control rats (n â€Š=â€Š 5) using [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography (PET). Regional uptake was quantified as binding potential (BPND) using the two-tissue reference model with the cerebellum as the reference. Time-activity curves were generated for the ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. Whereas BPND values were significantly lower in the ventral striatum (p < .001) and dorsal striatum (p â€Š=â€Š .001) in the adult Tg rats compared to controls rats, they were significantly lower only in the dorsal striatum (p < .05) in the young rats. Tg rats had smaller striatal volumes on magnetic resonance imaging. We also found lower expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase on immunohistochemistry in the Tg animals. Our findings suggest that progressive striatal D2/3 receptor deficits occur in Tg rats as they age and can be detected using small-animal PET imaging. The effectiveness of various approaches in preventing or halting this dopaminergic loss in the Tg rat can thus be measured preclinically using [18F]fallypride PET as a molecular imaging biomarker of HIV-associated neuropathology.
Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance measures as biomarkers of brain damage in a small animal model of HIV. - PloS one
There are currently no widely accepted neuro-HIV small animal models. We wanted to validate the HIV-1 Transgenic rat (Tg) as an appropriate neuro-HIV model and then establish in vivo imaging biomarkers of neuropathology, within this model, using MR structural and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).Young and middle-aged Tg and control rats were imaged using MRI. A subset of middle-aged animals underwent longitudinal repeat imaging six months later. Total brain volume (TBV), ventricular volume (VV) and parenchymal volume (PVâ€Š=â€ŠTBV-VV) were measured. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values of the corpus callosum (CC) were calculated from DTI data.TBV and PV were smaller in Tg compared to control rats in young and middle-aged cohorts (p<0.0001). VV increased significantly (pâ€Š=â€Š0.005) over time in the longitudinal Tg cohort. There were lower FA (p<0.002) and higher MD (p<0.003) values in the CC of middle-aged Tg rats compared to age-matched controls. Longitudinally, MD significantly decreased over time in Tg rats (p<0.03) while it did not change significantly in the control cohort over the same period of time (p>0.05).We detected brain volume loss in the Tg rat, probably due to astrocytic dysfunction/loss, loss of structural/axonal matrix and striatal neuronal loss as suggested by immunofluorescence. Increased MD and decreased FA in the CC probably reflect microstructural differences between the Tg and Control rats which could include increased extracellular space between white matter tracts, demyelination and axonal degeneration, among other pathologies. We believe that the Tg rat is an adequate model of neuropathology in HIV and that volumetric MR and DTI measures can be potentially used as biomarkers of disease progression.
Improved Accuracy of Minimally Invasive Transpedicular Screw Placement in the Lumbar Spine with Three-dimensional Stereotactic Image Guidance: A Comparative Meta-analysis. - Journal of spinal disorders & techniques
This study compares the accuracy rates of lumbar percutaneous pedicle screw placement (PPSP) using either two-dimensional (2-D) fluoroscopic guidance or three-dimensional (3-D) stereotactic navigation in the setting of minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS). This represents the largest single-operator study of its kind and first comprehensive review of 3-D stereotactic navigation in the setting of MISS.To examine differences in accuracy of lumbar pedicle screw placement using 2-D fluoroscopic navigation and 3-D stereotaxis in the setting of MISS.Surgeons increasingly rely upon advanced image guidance systems to guide minimally invasive PPSP. 3-D stereotactic navigation with intraoperative computed tomography (CT) offers well-documented benefit in open surgical approaches. However, the utility of 3-D stereotaxis in the setting of MISS remains incompletely explored by few studies with limited patient numbers.599 consecutive patients underwent minimally invasive lumbar PPSP aided by 3-D stereotactic navigation. Post-operative imaging and medical records were analyzed for patient demographics, incidence and degree of pedicle breach, and other surgical complications. A total of 2132 screw were reviewed and compared with a meta-analysis created from published data regarding the placement of 4248 fluoroscopically-navigated pedicle screws in the setting of MISS.In the 3-D navigation group, a total of 7 pedicle breaches occurred in 6 patients, corresponding to a per-person breach rate of 1.15% (6/518) and a per-screw breach rate of 0.33% (7/2132). Meta-analysis comprised of data from ten independent studies showed overall breach risk of 13.1% when 2-D fluoroscopic navigation was utilized in MISS. This translates to a 99% decrease in odds of breach in the 3-D navigation technique versus the traditional 2-D guided technique, with OR=0.01, (95% CI=0.01-0.03), P<0.001.3-D stereotactic navigation based upon intraoperative CT imaging offers markedly improved accuracy of percutaneous lumbar pedicle screw placement when used in the setting of minimally invasive spine surgery.
The First Example of Nickel-Catalyzed Silyl-Heck Reactions: Direct Activation of Silyl Triflates Without Iodide Additives. - Tetrahedron
For the first time, nickel-catalyzed silyl-Heck reactions are reported. Using simple phosphine-supported nickel catalysts, direct activation of silyl triflates has been achieved. These results contrast earlier palladium-catalyzed systems, which require iodide additives to activate silyl-triflates. These nickel-based catalysts exhibit good functional group tolerance in the preparation of vinyl silanes, and unlike earlier systems, allows for the incorporation of trialkylsilanes larger than Me3Si.
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2023 Carothers Rd Ste 409 Franklin, TN 37067
2009 Mallory Ln Ste 230
4601 Carothers Pkwy Suite 360
360 Cool Springs Blvd