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Surface microstructural features of scales in relation to toxic stress of Basic Violet-1. - Environmental science and pollution research international
The present work deals with scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of the scales of Labeo rohita on exposure to lethal and sublethal doses of Basic Violet-1 (an important textile and hair colorant). The dye induced loosening of the scales and caused breakage and disorganization of lepidonts. Erosion of lepidonts occurred mostly in the fish exposed to 0.20 and 0.40Â mg/L dye, during acute exposure and to 0.0225 and 0.045Â mg/L dye, during the subchronic exposure. However, lepidonts were sloughed off from their sockets in 0.60 and 0.80Â mg/L dye during acute exposure and in 0.09Â mg/L dye during the subchronic exposure. Circuli, the base that provides anchorage to the lepidonts, got damaged, and tubercles responsible for coloration of a fish became atrophied with an increase in the duration of exposure. The results of the present investigation clearly indicated that exposure to Basic Violet-1 (BV-1) even at a concentration as low as 0.0225Â mg was responsible for deleterious changes in the scale morphology of the test fish after 150Â days of exposure. Similar changes were observed in the scales of the dead fish also. It can thus be suggested that this noninvasive technique is very helpful for evaluating the health status of an aquatic body. At the same time, the changes in ultramorphology of scales can act asÂ an early indicator of the stress of very minute doses of dyes and even the scales of a dead fish can act as indicators of the untoward changes that would have occurred in the environment of the fish before death.
Influence of maturity and storage period on physical and biochemical characteristics of pear during post cold storage at ambient conditions. - Journal of food science and technology
The fruits of semi-soft pear (Pyrus communis) cv. Punjab Beauty harvested at three different harvest dates were stored at 0-1(0) C temperature with 90-95Â % Relative Humidity for 30, 45, 60 and 75Â days to assess the physical and chemical changes during storage. After every storage interval, the fruits were removed and kept at room temperature for 3 and 6Â days to study the shelf life of fruits. Immature fruits always had the highest values of flesh firmness; optimum-mature fruits had the next and over-mature fruits the lowest at each corresponding sampling period during storage. The fruits harvested at optimum stage of maturity exhibited significantly (pâ€‰<â€‰0.05) lower incidence of fruit softening and physiological loss in weight. These fruits retained excellent quality up to 60Â days of storage in cool chamber with 3Â days shelf life at ambient temperature. The fruits of first harvest date were incapable of developing acceptable flavor and quality upon ripening throughout the storage period. However, the fruits harvested at post-optimum stage recorded maximum physiological loss in weight and lesser firmness thus making them suitable for immediate consumption with no shelf life at ambient temperature storage.
Elevated hepatic miR-22-3p expression impairs gluconeogenesis by silencing the Wnt-responsive transcription factor, Tcf7. - Diabetes
miR-22-3p, a highly abundant hepatic microRNA, is abnormally increased in mouse models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, yet its contribution towards deregulated hepatic metabolism under diseased states is not well understood. Here, we unravel a novel link between elevated hepatic miR-22-3p expression and impaired gluconeogenesis in diabetic db/db mice via regulation of Tcf7. Our data demonstrate that miR-22-3p binds to the 3' UTR of TCF7 and downregulates it and this miR-mediated regulation of TCF7 increases the expression of enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway in HepG2 cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TCF7 in HepG2 cells also cause similar upregulation of gluconeogenic genes. Furthermore, in vivo silencing of miR-22-3p by antagomiR administration lowered random as well as fasting glucose levels in diabetic mice. miR-22-3p antagonism improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, the hepatic Tcf7 levels were restored along with reduced hepatic glucose output which was also reflected by decreased expression of gluconeogenic genes. Our results support a critical role for miR-22-3p and its target, Tcf7 in the pathogenesis of diabetes by up-regulating gluconeogenesis. Moreover, targeting the miR-22/Tcf7/Wnt axis might hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of altered hepatic physiology during insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.Â© 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Estimation of EEC, unattached fraction and equilibrium factor for the assessment of radiological dose using pin-hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors. - Journal of environmental radioactivity
High concentration of radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products in environment may increase the risk of radiological exposure to the mankind. The (222)Rn, (220)Rn concentration and their separate attached and unattached progeny concentration in units of EEC have been measured in the dwellings of Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab (India), using Pin-hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors (DTPS/DRPS). The indoor (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentration was found to vary from 21Â Bqm(-3) to 94Â Bqm(-3) and 17Â Bqm(-3) to 125Â Bqm(-3). The average EEC (attachedÂ +Â unattached) of (222)Rn and (220)Rn was 25Â Bqm(-3) and 1.8Â Bqm(-3). The equilibrium factor for (222)Rn and (220)Rn in studied area was 0.47Â Â±Â 0.13 and 0.05Â Â±Â 0.03. The equilibrium factor and unattached fraction of (222)Rn and (220)Rn has been calculated separately. Dose conversion factors (DCFs) of different models have been calculated from unattached fraction for the estimation of annual effective dose in the studied area. From the experimental data a correlation relationship has been observed between unattached fraction (fp(Rn)) and equilibrium factor (FRn). The present work also aims to evaluate an accurate expression among available expression in literature for the estimation of fp(Rn).Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ESTIMATION OF ATTACHED AND UNATTACHED PROGENY OF 222RN AND 220RN CONCENTRATION USING DEPOSITION BASED PROGENY SENSORS. - Radiation protection dosimetry
The attached and unattached radon and thoron progeny concentrations have been calculated using deposition-based progeny sensors in Mansa, Muktsar, Bathinda and Faridkot districts of Punjab, India. The total (attached + unattached) equilibrium-equivalent (222)Rn concentration (EECRA + U) and total (attached + unattached) equilibrium-equivalent (220)Rn concentration (EECTA + U) were found to vary from 9 to 46 Bqm(-3) and 0.5 to 3.1 Bq m(-3), respectively. The concentrations of attached progeny nuclides for both (222)Rn and (220)Rn have been found to be greater than the unattached progeny nuclides in the dwellings of studied area. An attempt has also been made to assess the effective dose for (222)Rn and (220)Rn in the studied area. The radiation dose originated from (222)Rn and (220)Rn progeny is low and health risk is negligible.Â© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Transcriptome profiling identifies p53 as a key player during calreticulin deficiency: Implications in lipid accumulation. - Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
Calreticulin (CRT) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident calcium binding protein that is involved in several cellular activities. Transcriptome analyses in CRT knockdown HepG2 cells revealed 253 altered unique genes and subsequent in silico protein-protein interaction network and MCODE clustering identified 34 significant clusters, of which p53 occupied the central hub node in the highest node-rich cluster. Toward validation, we show that CRT knockdown leads to inhibition of p53 protein levels. Both, CRT and p53 siRNA promote hepatic lipid accumulation and this was accompanied by elevated SREBP-1c and FAS levels. p53 was identified to bind at -219Â bp on the SREBP-1c promoter and in the presence of CRT siRNA, there was decreased occupancy of p53 on this binding element. This was associated with increased SREBP-1c promoter activity and both, mutation in this binding site or p53 over-expression antagonised the effects of CRT knockdown. We, therefore, identify a negatively regulating p53 binding site on the SREBP-1c promoter that is critical during hepatic lipid accumulation. These results were validated in mouse primary hepatocytes and toward a physiological relevance, we report that while the levels of CRT and p53 are reduced in the fatty livers of diabetic db/db mice, SREBP-1c levels are significantly elevated. Our results suggest that decreased CRT levels might be involved in the development of a fatty liver by preventing p53 occupancy on the SREBP-1c promoter and thereby facilitating SREBP-1c up-regulation and consequently, lipid accumulation.
Cancer stem cells: an insight and future perspective. - Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept derives from the fact that cancers are dysregulated tissue clones whose continued propagation is vested in a biologically distinct subset of cells that are typically rare. Rare CSCs have been isolated from a number of human tumors, including hematopoietic, brain, colon, and breast cancer. With the growing evidence that CSCs exist in a wide array of tumors, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and differentiation because corruption of genes involved in these pathways likely participates in tumor growth. Understanding the biology of CSCs will contribute to the identification of molecular targets important for future therapies.
Fish erythrocytes as biomarkers for the toxicity of sublethal doses of an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535). - Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada
The aim of the present study was to investigate poikilocytosis in Labeo rohita (an important food fish) as an early indicator of stress due to an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535). This dye was observed to be very toxic to test fish (96 h LC50 as0.45 mg/L dye). Fish were given short-term (96 h) and subchronic (150 days) exposures to the dye, and poikilocytosis was recorded under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Light microscopy helped in identification of micronuclei along with irregularities, notches, blebs, lobes, crenation, clumps, chains, spherocytes, vacuolation, and necrosis in erythrocytes. However, SEM indicated shrinkage, oozing of cytoplasm, and several new abnormal shapes including marginal foldings, discocytes, keratocytes, dacrocytes, degmacytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, protuberances, stomatocytes, drepanocytes, holes in the membrane, stippling/spicules, crescent-shaped cells, triangular cells, and pentagonal cells. Earlier studies speculated changes in the membrane to be responsible for clumping and chaining of erythrocytes, whereas the present SEM study clearly indicates that oozing out of cytoplasm is also responsible for the formation of chains and clumps. This study also shows that erythrocytes exhibit pathological symptoms before the appearance of other external symptoms such as abnormal behavior or mortality of fish. There was a dose- and duration-dependent increase; therefore, poikilocytosis, especially echinocytes, spherocytes, and clumps, can act as a biomarker for the stress caused by azo dyes.
Changes in pectin methyl esterase activity with different packaging materials and stages of fruit harvesting during cold storage of pear cv. Punjab beauty. - Journal of food science and technology
Pear cv. Punjab Beauty has become quite popular in Punjab. Excessive softening during cold storage leading to low shelf life is the major factor limiting its wider adoption. Studies were, therefore, conducted to determine the firmness and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity at 4 harvest dates (2nd, 3rd and 4th week of July, and 1st week of August). Various packaging materials i.e. corrugated fiber board boxes and crates with high and low density polyethylene liners, corrugated fiber board boxes, crates and wooden boxes were also evaluated for their role in extending the shelf life of fruits. The enzyme activity and fruit firmness was evaluated periodically after 30, 45, 60 and 75Â days of storage at 0-1Â Â°C and 90-95Â % RH. The firmness of the fruits decreased with the increase in storage intervals but the enzyme activity increased with the storage period up to 60Â days and declined thereafter. Ripening-related changes in all the harvests were characterized mainly by an increase in the solubilization of pectin with a concomitant decrease in the degree of firmness. There was a continuous increase in enzyme activity with the advancement in harvesting dates and then fell sharply in the advanced ripening stages. Highest pectin methyl esterase activity was in fruits packed in crates followed by wooden boxes and corrugated fiber board boxes while the lowest was recorded in fruits packed in corrugated fiber board boxes with high density polyethylene liners. Therefore, high density polyethylene lined CFB boxes proved to be most effective in preventing the loss in firmness.
Synthesis of Imine-Naphthol Tripodal Ligand and Study of Its Coordination Behaviour towards Fe(III), Al(III), and Cr(III) Metal Ions. - Bioinorganic chemistry and applications
A hexadentate Schiff base tripodal ligand is synthesized by the condensation of tris (2-aminoethyl) amine with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like UV-VIS, IR, NMR, MASS, and elemental analysis. The solution studies by potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods are done at 25 Â± 1Â°C, Âµ = 0.1â€‰M KCl, to calculate the protonation constants of the ligand and formation constants of metal complexes formed by the ligand with Fe(III), Al(III), and Cr(III) metal ions. The affinity of the ligand towards Fe(III) is compared with deferiprone (a drug applied for iron intoxication) and transferrin (the main Fe(III) binding protein in plasma). Structural analysis of the ligand and the metal complexes was done using semiempirical PM6 method. Electronic and IR spectra are calculated by semiempirical methods and compared with experimental one.
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