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In vivo and in vitro sensitivity of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm to SL-401, an interleukin-3 receptor targeted biologic agent. - Haematologica
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an aggressive malignancy derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. There is currently no accepted standard of care for treating this neoplasm, and therapeutic strategies have never been prospectively evaluated. Since blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells express high levels of interleukin-3 receptor Î± chain (IL3-RÎ± or CD123), antitumor effects of the interleukin-3 receptor-targeted drug SL-401 against blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxicity of SL-401 was assessed in patient-derived blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell lines (CAL-1 and GEN2.2) and in primary blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells isolated from 12 patients using flow cytometry and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The cytotoxic effects of SL-401 were compared to those of several relevant cytotoxic agents. SL-401 exhibited a robust cytotoxicity against blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of SL-401 were observed at substantially lower concentrations than those achieved in clinical trials to date. Survival of mice inoculated with a blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell line and treated with a single cycle of SL-401 was significantly longer than that of untreated controls (median survival, 58 versus 17 days, P<0.001). These findings indicate that blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells are highly sensitive to SL-401, and support further evaluation of SL-401 in patients suffering from blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.CopyrightÂ© Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Expression analysis of mitotic spindle checkpoint genes in breast carcinoma: role of NDC80/HEC1 in early breast tumorigenicity, and a two-gene signature for aneuploidy. - Molecular cancer
Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) are common abnormalities in human cancer. Alterations of the mitotic spindle checkpoint are likely to contribute to these phenotypes, but little is known about somatic alterations of mitotic spindle checkpoint genes in breast cancer.To obtain further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying aneuploidy in breast cancer, we used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to quantify the mRNA expression of 76 selected mitotic spindle checkpoint genes in a large panel of breast tumor samples.The expression of 49 (64.5%) of the 76 genes was significantly dysregulated in breast tumors compared to normal breast tissues: 40 genes were upregulated and 9 were downregulated. Most of these changes in gene expression during malignant transformation were observed in epithelial cells.Alterations of nine of these genes, and particularly NDC80, were also detected in benign breast tumors, indicating that they may be involved in pre-neoplastic processes.We also identified a two-gene expression signature (PLK1 + AURKA) which discriminated between DNA aneuploid and DNA diploid breast tumor samples. Interestingly, some DNA tetraploid tumor samples failed to cluster with DNA aneuploid breast tumors.This study confirms the importance of previously characterized genes and identifies novel candidate genes that could be activated for aneuploidy to occur. Further functional analyses are required to clearly confirm the role of these new identified genes in the molecular mechanisms involved in breast cancer aneuploidy. The novel genes identified here, and/or the two-gene expression signature, might serve as diagnostic or prognostic markers and form the basis for novel therapeutic strategies.
Ex vivo effects of high-density lipoprotein exposure on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in patients with severe cirrhosis. - Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are known to neutralize lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because patients with cirrhosis have lower HDL levels, this may contribute to LPS-induced ex vivo monocyte overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the effects of HDL on cytokine production by monocytes from patients with cirrhosis have never been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of HDL on LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in whole blood and isolated monocytes from patients with severe cirrhosis and controls. Plasma levels of HDL and cytokines were determined. The effects of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) on LPS-induced cytokine production in whole blood were assessed by cytokine array and on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in isolated monocytes. Plasma HDL levels were significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis than in controls. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls. Incubation of rHDL with whole blood prevented LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 overproduction in patients with cirrhosis. LPS-induced TNF-alpha production and CD14 expression were significantly more marked in cirrhotic monocytes than in control monocytes, and both decreased significantly after rHDL incubation. LPS-induced down-regulation of scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) expression was abolished in cirrhotic monocytes.This study shows that rHDL abolishes the LPS-induced overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines in whole blood from patients with severe cirrhosis. These results were confirmed in isolated monocytes from these patients. This suggests that administration of rHDL might be a useful strategy for the treatment of cirrhosis to limit LPS-induced cytokine overproduction.
[Severe thrombopenia as single sign of hemophagocytosis in a patient with cirrhosis and lethal infection of ascitis fluid by Escherichia coli]. - GastroenteÌrologie clinique et biologique
Hemophagocytosis is defined by a systemic macrophages activation, phagocyting the blood elements. This syndrome can be primary or secondary to multiple causes such as neoplasia or infections. We report here the first case of a hemophagocytosis caused by an Escherichia coli infection of ascitis fluid.
How to facilitate early diagnosis of CNS involvement in malignant lymphoma. - Expert review of hematology
Making the diagnosis of secondary CNS involvement in lymphoma can be difficult due to unspecific signs and symptoms, limited accessibility of brain/myelon parenchyma and low sensitivity and/or specifity of imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination currently available. Areas covered: MRI of the total neuroaxis followed by CSF cytomorphology and flow cytometry are methods of choice when CNS lymphoma (CNSL) is suspected. To reduce the numerous pitfalls of these examinations several aspects should be considered. New CSF biomarkers might be of potential diagnostic value. Attempts to standardize response criteria are presented. Expert commentary: Diagnosing CNSL remains challenging. Until diagnostic methods combining high sensitivity with high specifity are routinely introduced, high level of awareness and optimal utilization of examinations currently available are needed to early diagnose this potentially devastating disease.
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