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Discopersicus n. gen., a New Member of the Family Tylenchidae Ã–rley, 1880 with Detailed SEM Study on Two Known Species of the Genus Discotylenchus Siddiqi, 1980 (Nematoda; Tylenchidae) from Iran. - Journal of nematology
Discopersicus iranicus n. gen., n. comb., previously described from Iran as a new species under the genus Discotylenchus, is illustrated using light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and further studied using molecular characters. SEM studies revealed the newly proposed genus has oblique amphidial apertures on the lateral sides of the lip region. SEM images are also provided for two species of Discotylenchus, namely D. discretus and D. brevicaudatus, as the first SEM study of the genus. These results confirmed longitudinal amphidial aperture type on lateral sides of the lip region in genus Discotylenchus, as noted by Siddiqi while erecting the genus with D. discretus as the type species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using partial small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences revealed the affinity of the genus Discopersicus n. gen. with members of the subfamily Boleodorinae, as supported by morphological characters (mainly, the oblique amphidial opening).
Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Analysis of Salivary Transcriptome in Non-Syndromic Autistic Male Children. - International journal of molecular sciences
Childhood autism is a severe form of complex genetically heterogeneous and behaviorally defined set of neurodevelopmental diseases, collectively termed as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive technique for transcriptome analysis, and it has been frequently used in ASD gene expression studies. However, normalization to stably expressed reference gene(s) is necessary to validate any alteration reported at the mRNA level for target genes. The main goal of the present study was to find the most stable reference genes in the salivary transcriptome for RT-qPCR analysis in non-syndromic male childhood autism. Saliva samples were obtained from nine drug naÃ¯ve non-syndromic male children with autism and also sex-, age-, and location-matched healthy controls using the RNA-stabilizer kit from DNA Genotek. A systematic two-phased measurement of whole saliva mRNA levels for eight common housekeeping genes (HKGs) was carried out by RT-qPCR, and the stability of expression for each candidate gene was analyzed using two specialized algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, in parallel. Our analysis shows that while the frequently used HKG ACTB is not a suitable reference gene, the combination of GAPDH and YWHAZ could be recommended for normalization of RT-qPCR analysis of salivary transcriptome in non-syndromic autistic male children.
Reducing implicit racial preferences: II. Intervention effectiveness across time. - Journal of experimental psychology. General
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejudice. Short-term malleability in implicit preferences does not necessarily lead to long-term change, raising new questions about the flexibility and stability of implicit preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record(c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Integrated forward and reverse supply chain: A tire case study. - Waste management (New York, N.Y.)
This paper attempts to integrate both a forward and reverse supply chain to design a closed-loop supply chain network (CLSC). The problem in the design of a CLSC network is uncertainty in demand, return products and the quality of return products. Scenario analyses are generated to overcome this uncertainty. In contrast to the existing supply chain network design models, a new application of a CLSC network was studied in this paper to reduce waste. A multi-product, multi-tier mixed integer linear model is developed for a CLSC network design. The main objective is to maximize profit and provide waste management decision support in order to minimize pollution. The result shows applicability of the model in the tire industry. The model determines the number and the locations of facilities and the material flows between these facilities.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Estrogen receptor beta signals to inhibition of cardiac fibrosis. - Molecular and cellular endocrinology
Cardiac fibrosis evolves from the cardiac hypertrophic state. In this respect, estrogen and estrogen receptor beta (ERÎ²) inhibit the effects of cardiac hypertrophic peptides that also stimulate fibrosis. Here we determine details of the anti-fibrotic functions of ERÎ². In acutely isolated rat cardiac fibroblasts. E2 or a specific ERÎ² agonist (Î²LGND2) blocked angiotensin II (AngII) signaling to fibrosis. This resulted from ERÎ² activating protein kinase A and AMP kinase, inhibiting both AngII de-phosphorylation of RhoA and the resulting stimulation of Rho kinase. Inhibition of Rho kinase from ERÎ² signaling resulted in marked decrease of TGFÎ² expression, connective tissue growth factor production and function, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 expression and activity, and the conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Production of collagens I and III were also significantly decreased. Several important aspects were corroborated in-vivo from Î²LGND2-treated mice that underwent AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, ERÎ² in cardiac fibroblasts prevents key aspects of cardiac fibrosis development.Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Optimal Magnetic Field for Crossing Super-Para-Magnetic Nanoparticles through the Brain Blood Barrier: A Computational Approach. - Biosensors
This paper scrutinizes the magnetic field effect to deliver the superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNs) through the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). Herein we study the interaction between the nanoparticle (NP) and BBB membrane using Molecular Dynamic (MD) techniques. The MD model is used to enhance our understanding of the dynamic behavior of SPMNs crossing the endothelial cells in the presence of a gradient magnetic field. Actuation of NPs under weak magnetic field offers the great advantage of a non-invasive drug delivery without the risk of causing injury to the brain. Furthermore, a weak magnetic portable stimulator can be developed using low complexity prototyping techniques. Based on MD simulation results in this paper, SPMNs can cross the cell membrane while experiencing very weak mechanical forces in the range of pN. This study also derives guidelines for the design of the SPMNs dedicated to crossing the BBB using external magnetic fields.
Serum metabolic biomarkers distinguish metabolically healthy peripherally obese from unhealthy centrally obese individuals. - Nutrition & metabolism
Metabolic abnormalities are more associated with central obesity than peripheral obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study was to identify serum metabolic biomarkers which distinguish metabolically unhealthy centrally obese (MUCO) from metabolically healthy peripherally obese (MHPO) individuals.A two-stage case-control study design was employed. In the discovery stage, 20 individuals (10 MHPO and 10 MUCO) were included and in the following validation stage, 79 individuals (20 normal weight (NW), 30 MHPO, 29 MUCO) were utilized. Study groups were matched for age, sex, physical activity and total dietary calorie intake with MHPO and MUCO additionally matched for BMI. Metabolic abnormality was defined as: 1) HOMA-IRâ€‰>â€‰4.27 (90(th) percentile), 2) high-density lipoprotein cholesterolâ€‰<â€‰1.03Â mmol/L in men andâ€‰<â€‰1.30Â mmol/L in women, 3) fasting blood glucoseâ€‰â‰¥â€‰5.6Â mmol/L, and 4) waist circumferenceâ€‰>â€‰102Â cm in men andâ€‰>â€‰88Â cm in women. MUCO individuals had all of these abnormalities whereas MHPO and NW individuals had none of them. A targeted metabolomics approach was performed on fasting serum samples, which can simultaneously identify and quantify 186 metabolites.In the discovery stage, serum leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, valine, phenylalanine, alpha-aminoadipic acid, methioninesulfoxide and propionylcarnitine were found to be significantly higher in MUCO, compared with MHPO group after multiple testing adjustment. Significant changes of five metabolites (leucine, isoleucine, valine, alpha-aminoadipic acid, propionylcarnitine) were confirmed in the validation stage.Significantly higher levels of serum leucine, isoleucine, valine, alpha-aminoadipic acid, propionylcarnitine are characteristic of metabolically unhealthy centrally obese patients. The finding provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities in obesity.
Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada. - PloS one
Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), percent android fat (%AF), percent gynoid fat (%GF) and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all). Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001). Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body composition in humans.
Rotylenchus sardashtensis n. sp., a monosexual species from Iran, with molecular identification and detailed morphological observations on an Iranian population of Rotylenchus cypriensis Antoniou, 1980 (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Hoplolaimidae). - Systematic parasitology
Rotylenchus sardashtensis n. sp., a new monosexual species is described and illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular studies. Rotylenchus sardashtensis n. sp. appears close morphologically and molecularly to eight known species of the genus, i.e. R. buxophilus Golden, 1956, R. eximius Siddiqi, 1964, R. breviglans Sher, 1965, R. cypriensis Antoniou, 1980, R. pakistanensis Maqbool & Shahina, 1986, R. vitis Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, LiÃ©banas, Archidona-Yuste, Palomares-Rius & Castillo, 2012, R. paravitis Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Navas-CortÃ©s, LiÃ©banas, Vovlas, Subbotin, Palomares-Rius & Castillo, 2013 and R. dalikhaniensis Aliramaji, Pourjam, Ãlvarez-Ortega, Pedram & Atighi, 2015 from which the morphological differences are discussed. The new species is characterised mainly in having a hemispherical and well set off lip region with 3-4 annuli under light microscopy and irregular cob-like appearance under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a stylet 26-30Â Âµm long, a vulva located at 61-77% of body length with double epiptygma, rounded tail with 2-4 annuli and ventral mucron at its tip. Morphologically, R. sardashtensis n. sp. could be distinguished from all similar species within the genus by its matrix code as follows: A3, B1, C1, D4, E1, F2, G2, H5, I2, J2, K1. Rotylenchus cypriensis collected from the rhizosphere of Prunus sp. in Gilangharb region is characterised with its morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the D2-D3 expansion region of the 28S rRNA gene and the ITS1 fragment revealed the relationships of both species examined in present study and other species of the genus Rotylenchus Filipjev, 1936 and the family Hoplolaimidae Filipjev, 1934 included in analyses.
Effects of Photobiomodulation and Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Articular Cartilage Defects in a Rabbit Model. - Photomedicine and laser surgery
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of cultured autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with scaffold and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits.For healing of the articular cartilage defects, although positive effects of BMSCs and LLLT have been demonstrated, their combination effect is still unknown; therefore, we investigated combining these two techniques has a synergistic effect.After bone marrow aspiration from 10 rabbits, BMSCs were isolated, cultured in monolayer, suspended on a type I collagen scaffold and then implanted onto a full-thickness osteochondral defect (4â€‰mm in diameter), artificially made on the patellar groove of both knees in the same rabbits. Then a knee was selected randomly in each rabbit as the experimental group, and subjected to Ga-Al-As (810â€‰nm) laser irradiation with energy density of 4â€‰J/cm(2) every other day for 3 weeks. As the control group, the other knee did not receive LLLT. After this period, animals were euthanized and osteochondral defects were evaluated by histomorphometric methods.No significant difference in new cartilage formation and inflammation was found between the groups (p > 0.05). However, there was significantly more new bone formation in the experimental group (p < 0.05).In terms of our research, although better healing in osteochondral defects was seen when combining BMSCs and LLLT compared with the use of BMSCs alone, this improvement was predominantly caused by new bone formation rather than new cartilage formation.
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