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Dr. Cesar  Ochoa  Md image

Dr. Cesar Ochoa Md

2799 W Grand Blvd Henry Ford Hospital
Detroit MI 48202
313 162-2600
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 4301100568
NPI: 1063788677
Taxonomy Codes:
207R00000X

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Publications

Liposomal Glutathione Supplementation Restores TH1 Cytokine Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV-Infected Individuals. - Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
Cytokines are signaling biomolecules that serve as key regulators of our immune system. CD4(+) T-cells can be grouped into 2 major categories based on their cytokine profile: T-helper 1 (TH1) subset and T-helper 2 (TH2) subset. Protective immunity against HIV infection requires TH1-directed CD4 T-cell responses, mediated by cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Cytokines released by the TH1 subset of CD4 T-cells are considered important for mediating effective immune responses against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Oxidative stress and redox imbalance that occur during HIV infection often lead to inappropriate immune responses. Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant present in nearly all cells and is recognized for its function in maintaining redox homeostasis. Our laboratory previously reported that individuals with HIV infection have lower levels of GSH. In this study, we report a link between lower levels of GSH and dysregulation of TH1- and TH2-associated cytokines in the plasma samples of HIV-positive subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that supplementing individuals with HIV infection for 13 weeks with liposomal GSH (lGSH) resulted in a significant increase in the levels of TH1 cytokines, IL-1β, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. lGSH supplementation in individuals with HIV infection also resulted in a substantial decrease in the levels of free radicals and immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, relative to those in a placebo-controlled cohort. Finally, we determined the effects of lGSH supplementation in improving the functions of immune cells to control M. tb infection by conducting in vitro assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from HIV-positive individuals at post-GSH supplementation. Our studies establish a correlation between low levels of GSH and increased susceptibility to M. tb infection through TH2-directed response, which may be relieved with lGSH supplementation enhancing the TH1 response.
Investigating the causes for decreased levels of glutathione in individuals with type II diabetes. - PloS one
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an eminent global burden with one third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Individuals with compromised immune systems are especially vulnerable to M. tb infection. In fact, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are two to three times more susceptible to TB than those without T2DM. In this study, we report that individuals with T2DM have lower levels of glutathione (GSH) due to compromised levels of GSH synthesis and metabolism enzymes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), a cytokine that is known to decrease the expression of the catalytic subunit of glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCLC) was found in increased levels in the plasma samples from individuals with T2DM, explaining the possible underlying mechanism that is responsible for decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Moreover, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) were observed in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17 was accompanied by enhanced production of free radicals further indicating an alternative mechanism for the decreased levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM. Augmenting the levels of GSH in macrophages isolated from individuals with T2DM resulted in improved control of M. tb infection. Furthermore, cytokines that are responsible for controlling M. tb infection at the cellular and granuloma level such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), were found to be compromised in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. On the other hand, interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunosuppressive cytokine was increased in plasma samples isolated from individuals with T2DM. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of GSH in individuals with T2DM lead to their increased susceptibility to M. tb infection.
Promoting effect of neutrophils on lung tumorigenesis is mediated by CXCR2 and neutrophil elastase. - Molecular cancer
Tumor cells produce various cytokines and chemokines that attract leukocytes. Leukocytes can amplify parenchymal innate immune responses, and have been shown to contribute to tumor promotion. Neutrophils are among the first cells to arrive at sites of inflammation, and the increased number of tumor-associated neutrophils is linked to poorer outcome in patients with lung cancer.We have previously shown that COPD-like airway inflammation promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model of lung cancer (CC-LR). This was associated with severe lung neutrophilic influx due to the increased level of neutrophil chemoattractant, KC. To further study the role of neutrophils in lung tumorigenesis, we depleted neutrophils in CC-LR mice using an anti-neutrophil antibody. This resulted in a significant reduction in lung tumor number. We further selectively inhibited the main receptor for neutrophil chemo-attractant KC, CXCR2. Similarly, this resulted in suppression of neutrophil recruitment into the lung of CC-LR mice followed by significant tumor reduction. Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a potent elastolytic enzyme produced by neutrophils at the site of inflammation. We crossed the CC-LR mice with NE knock-out mice, and found that lack of NE significantly inhibits lung cancer development. These were associated with significant reduction in tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis.We conclude that lung cancer promotion by inflammation is partly mediated by activation of the IL-8/CXCR2 pathway and subsequent recruitment of neutrophils and release of neutrophil elastase. This provides a baseline for future clinical trials using the IL-8/CXCR2 pathway or NE inhibitors in patients with lung cancer.
Violent and fatal youth trauma: is there a missed opportunity? - The western journal of emergency medicine
Accidents and assaults (homicides) are the leading causes of death among the youth of the United States, accounting for 53.3% of deaths among children aged 1 to19 years. Victim recidivism, defined as repeated visits to the emergency department (ED) as a victim of violent trauma, is a significantly growing public health problem. As 5-year mortality rates for recidivism are as high as 20%, it is important to determine whether victims with a history of violent trauma are at increased risk for fatal outcome with their next trauma. We hypothesized that victims of violent trauma who have had 1 prior ED visit for violent trauma will have increased odds of fatal outcome.A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients presenting with penetrating trauma to the ED from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2009. All patients between the ages of 15 to 25 years who presented to the ED for any penetrating trauma were included. Patients with prior presentations for penetrating trauma were compared to those patients who were first-time presenters to determine the odds ratio of fatal outcome.Overall, 15,395 patients were treated for traumatic presentations. Of these, 1,044 met inclusion criteria. Demographically, 79.4% were Hispanic, 19.4% were African American, and 0.96% were Caucasian. The average age was 21 years, and 98% of the population was male. One hundred and forty-seven (14%) had prior presentations, and 897 (86%) did not. Forty of the 147 patients (27%) with prior presentations had a fatal outcome as compared to 29 patients of the 868 (3%) without prior presentations, with odds ratio of 10.8 (95% confidence interval, 6.4-18.1; Pearson χ(2), P < 0.001). The 5-year mortality rate for those patients with fatal outcomes was calculated at 16.5%.Patients who had prior ED visits for penetrating trauma were at greater risk for fatal outcomes compared to those with no prior visits. Therefore, trauma-related ED visits might offer an opportunity for education and intervention. This may help to prevent future fatalities.
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. - International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become the third leading cause of death in the world by 2020. It is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases, most commonly cigarette smoke. Among smokers with COPD, even following withdrawal of cigarette smoke, inflammation persists and lung function continues to deteriorate. One possible explanation is that bacterial colonization of smoke-damaged airways, most commonly with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), perpetuates airway injury and inflammation. Furthermore, COPD has also been identified as an independent risk factor for lung cancer irrespective of concomitant cigarette smoke exposure. In this article, we review the role of NTHi in airway inflammation that may lead to COPD progression and lung cancer promotion.
Interleukin 6, but not T helper 2 cytokines, promotes lung carcinogenesis. - Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
Several epidemiologic studies have found that smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an inflammatory disease of the lung, have an increased risk of lung cancer compared with smokers without COPD. We have shown a causal role for COPD-like airway inflammation in lung cancer promotion in the CCSP(Cre)/LSL-K-ras(G12D) mouse model (CC-LR). In contrast, existing epidemiologic data do not suggest any definite association between allergic airway inflammation and lung cancer. To test this, CC-LR mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with an OVA aerosol weekly for 8 weeks. This resulted in eosinophilic lung inflammation associated with increased levels of T helper 2 cytokines and mucous metaplasia of airway epithelium, similar to what is seen in asthmatic patients. However, this type of inflammation did not result in a significant difference in lung surface tumor number (49 ± 9 in OVA vs. 52 ± 5 in control) in contrast to a 3.2-fold increase with COPD-like inflammation. Gene expression analysis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-treated lungs showed upregulation of a different profile of inflammatory genes, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), compared with OVA-treated lungs. Therefore, to determine the causal role of cytokines that mediate COPD-like inflammation in lung carcinogenesis, we genetically ablated IL-6 in CC-LR mice. This not only inhibited intrinsic lung cancer development (1.7-fold) but also inhibited the promoting effect of extrinsic COPD-like airway inflammation (2.6-fold). We conclude that there is a clear specificity for the nature of inflammation in lung cancer promotion, and IL-6 has an essential role in lung cancer promotion.©2010 AACR.
Effect of pioglitazone on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in non-diabetic premenopausal Hispanic women with prior gestational diabetes. - Atherosclerosis
The Pioglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes (PIPOD) study was a single arm 3-year open-label pioglitazone treatment to determine the effects of pioglitazone in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who had completed the troglitazone in the Prevention of Diabetes (TRIPOD) study. Here we report the results on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in non-diabetic women. Data were analyzed to compare CIMT progression rates during pioglitazone treatment to rates that had been observed during either placebo or troglitazone treatment in the TRIPOD study. Sixty-one women met the entry criteria with mean age of 40 years. In the 30 women who came to PIPOD from the placebo arm of TRIPOD, the CIMT rate was 69% lower during pioglitazone treatment than it had been during placebo (0.0031 vs. 0.0100mm/yr, p=0.006). In the 31 women who came to PIPOD from the troglitazone arm of TRIPOD, CIMT rate was 38% lower during pioglitazone than it had been during troglitazone, a difference that was not statistically significant (0.0037 vs. 0.0060mm/year; p=0.26). Adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics and potential on-trial confounders did not alter the conclusion but did increase the CIMT rates differences slightly. We conclude that treatment with pioglitazone slowed CIMT progression in women who had been on placebo in the TRIPOD study and maintained a relatively low rate of progression in women who had been on troglitazone. Pioglitazone slows progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in young Hispanic women at increased risk for type 2 diabetes.
Effect of pioglitazone on pancreatic beta-cell function and diabetes risk in Hispanic women with prior gestational diabetes. - Diabetes
The Pioglitazone In Prevention Of Diabetes (PIPOD) study was conducted to evaluate beta-cell function, insulin resistance, and the incidence of diabetes during treatment with pioglitazone in Hispanic women with prior gestational diabetes who had completed participation in the Troglitazone In Prevention Of Diabetes (TRIPOD) study. Women who completed the TRIPOD study were offered participation in the PIPOD study for a planned 3 years of drug treatment and 6 months of postdrug washout. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed annually on pioglitazone and at the end of the postdrug washout. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) for assessment of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function were conducted at baseline, after 1 year on pioglitazone, and at the end of the postdrug washout. Of 95 women who were not diabetic at the end of the TRIPOD study, 89 enrolled in the PIPOD study, 86 completed at least one follow-up visit, and 65 completed all study visits, including the postdrug tests. Comparison of changes in beta-cell compensation for insulin resistance across the TRIPOD and PIPOD studies revealed that pioglitazone stopped the decline in beta-cell function that occurred during placebo treatment in the TRIPOD study and maintained the stability of beta-cell function that had occurred during troglitazone treatment in the TRIPOD study. The risk of diabetes, which occurred at an average rate of 4.6% per year, was lowest in women with the largest reduction in total IVGTT insulin area after 1 year of treatment. The similarity of findings between the PIPOD and TRIPOD studies support a class effect of thiazolidinedione drugs to enhance insulin sensitivity, reduce insulin secretory demands, and preserve pancreatic beta-cell function, all in association with a relatively low rate of type 2 diabetes, in Hispanic women with prior gestational diabetes.
Effect of thiazolidinedione treatment on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in premenopausal women at high risk for type 2 diabetes. - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
We tested the effects of treatment with a thiazolidinedione drug on rates of progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and some putative determinants of CIMT in young women at high risk for type 2 diabetes. A total of 266 nondiabetic, Hispanic women with recent gestational diabetes were randomized to placebo or troglitazone. CIMT measurements were made at baseline, annually, and at study end, together with measurements of obesity, serum lipids, and glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance tests. Insulin sensitivity (minimal model analysis) was measured at baseline and 3 months later. Data were analyzed to compare CIMT progression rates between treatment groups and investigate potential determinants of differences in CIMT progression. One hundred ninety-two women had a CIMT measurement at baseline and at least one follow-up visit. The mean rate of CIMT change was 31% lower in women assigned to troglitazone (P = 0.048). This intergroup difference was not explained by baseline or on-trial differences in obesity, lipids, glucose, or insulin. The reduction in CIMT progression developed gradually, occurred only in women who had an increase in insulin sensitivity, and was unrelated to the presence of the metabolic syndrome at baseline. Troglitazone reduced the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis via a mechanism that involved unmeasured mediators of atherosclerosis, either in the circulation or directly in the arterial wall.
Pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance at two different stages in the evolution of type 2 diabetes: impact on glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of treating insulin resistance with a thiazolidinedione drug before vs. at the onset of diabetes on glucose levels and beta-cell function. Nondiabetic Hispanic women of Mexican or Central American descent with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were randomized to troglitazone (early intervention), 400 mg/d, or placebo (later intervention). Women who developed diabetes were placed on open-label troglitazone. Glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and beta-cell function were measured at randomization, at the diagnosis of diabetes, and 8 months post trial to determine the long-term impact of the two treatment strategies on glucose levels and beta-cell function. During a mean follow-up of 4.3 yr between baseline and posttrial tests, glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test glucose area, P = 0.04) and insulin resistance (MINMOD SI, P = 0.02) worsened more in women randomized to late intervention (n = 69) than to early intervention (n = 57). Insulin secretion (acute insulin response in the iv glucose tolerance test, P = 0.09) and beta-cell compensation for insulin resistance (disposition index, P = 0.07) also tended to worsen more in the late intervention group. Among women in the late intervention group who developed diabetes, oral glucose tolerance test glucose area (P = 0.0001) and beta-cell function (P < or = 0.04) deteriorated significantly during development of diabetes on placebo and then did not change significantly (P > 0.50) during treatment with troglitazone and posttreatment washout. In high-risk Hispanic women, amelioration of insulin resistance can stabilize glycemia at the time diabetes develops. These findings highlight the role of insulin resistance in the genesis of progressive beta-cell dysfunction during the evolution of type 2 diabetes.

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