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Assessing the role of static length scales behind glassy dynamics in polydisperse hard disks. - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The possible role of growing static order in the dynamical slowing down toward the glass transition has recently attracted considerable attention. On the basis of random first-order transition theory, a new method to measure the static correlation length of amorphous order, called "point-to-set" (PTS) length, has been proposed and used to show that the dynamic length grows much faster than the static length. Here, we study the nature of the PTS length, using a polydisperse hard-disk system, which is a model that is known to exhibit a growing hexatic order upon densification. We show that the PTS correlation length is decoupled from the steeper increase of the correlation length of hexatic order and dynamic heterogeneity, while closely mirroring the decay length of two-body density correlations. Our results thus provide a clear example that other forms of order can play an important role in the slowing down of the dynamics, casting a serious doubt on the order-agnostic nature of the PTS length and its relevance to slow dynamics, provided that a polydisperse hard-disk system is a typical glass former.
Dr. Adolph Bushell: a New England treasure & a Renaissance man for all seasons. - Journal of the history of dentistry
The landscape of New England lost a treasure on July 26, 2013 in the person of Dr. Adolph Bushell. He was a man for all seasons who dedicated his life to helping people around the world in meaningful ways. Dr. Bushell was 90 years old at the time of his passing, having spent over 60 of those years in the service of others; primarily through his dental expertise and leadership, but also through his amazing humanitarian efforts and lifetime of volunteerism for which he received numerous awards and recognition.
Influence of patch-size variability on the crystallization of tetrahedral patchy particles. - Physical review letters
The understanding of disorder effects on crystallization is of fundamental and technological importance. It is well established by both theory and experiment that particle-size polydispersity hinders crystallization for isotropically interacting particles. Here, we address the effects of patch variability in a model for tetrahedral colloids, where polydispersity is introduced independently on the size, position, and strength of the attractive patches. Our simulations indicate that, unlike particle-size polydispersity, angular polydispersity has a minor impact on the crystallization properties of tetrahedral colloidal particles. Particles with angular polydispersity well within current experimental possibilities fully retain their crystallization properties, a result which should encourage the realization of colloidal crystals in experiment.
New metastable form of ice and its role in the homogeneous crystallization of water. - Nature materials
The homogeneous crystallization of water at low temperature is believed to occur through the direct nucleation of cubic (Ic) and hexagonal (Ih) ices. Here, we provide evidence from molecular simulations that the nucleation of ice proceeds through the formation of a new metastable phase, which we name IceÂ 0. We find that IceÂ 0 is structurally similar to the supercooled liquid, and that on growth it gradually converts into a stacking of Ice Ic and Ih. We suggest that this mechanism provides a thermodynamic explanation for the location and pressure dependence of the homogeneous nucleation temperature, and that IceÂ 0 controls the homogeneous nucleation of low-pressure ices, acting as a precursor to crystallization in accordance with Ostwald's step rule of phases. Our findings show that metastable crystalline phases of water may play roles that have been largely overlooked.
Understanding water's anomalies with locally favoured structures. - Nature communications
Water is a complex liquid that displays a surprising array of unusual properties, the most famous being the density maximum at about 4 Â°C. The origin of these anomalies is still a matter of debate, and so far a quantitative description of water's phase behaviour starting from the molecular arrangements is still missing. Here we report a study of the microscopic structural features of water as obtained from computer simulations. We identify locally favoured structures having a high degree of translational order in the second shell, and a two-state model is used to describe the behaviour of liquid water over a wide region of the phase diagram. Furthermore, we show that locally favoured structures not only have translational order in the second shell but also contain five-membered rings of hydrogen-bonded molecules. This suggests their mixed character: the former helps crystallization, whereas the latter causes frustration against crystallization.
Importance of many-body correlations in glass transition: an example from polydisperse hard spheres. - The Journal of chemical physics
Most of the liquid-state theories, including glass-transition theories, are constructed on the basis of two-body density correlations. However, we have recently shown that many-body correlations, in particular, bond orientational correlations, play a key role in both the glass transition and the crystallization transition. Here we show, with numerical simulations of supercooled polydisperse hard spheres systems, that the length-scale associated with any two-point spatial correlation function does not increase toward the glass transition. A growing length-scale is instead revealed by considering many-body correlation functions, such as correlators of orientational order, which follows the length-scale of the dynamic heterogeneities. Despite the growing of crystal-like bond orientational order, we reveal that the stability against crystallization with increasing polydispersity is due to an increasing population of icosahedral arrangements of particles. Our results suggest that, for this type of systems, many-body correlations are a manifestation of the link between the vitrification and the crystallization phenomena. Whether a system is vitrified or crystallized can be controlled by the degree of frustration against crystallization, polydispersity in this case.
The microscopic pathway to crystallization in supercooled liquids. - Scientific reports
Despite its fundamental and technological importance, a microscopic understanding of the crystallization process is still elusive. By computer simulations of the hard-sphere model we reveal the mechanism by which thermal fluctuations drive the transition from the supercooled liquid state to the crystal state. In particular we show that fluctuations in bond orientational order trigger the nucleation process, contrary to the common belief that the transition is initiated by density fluctuations. Moreover, the analysis of bond orientational fluctuations shows that these not only act as seeds of the nucleation process, but also i) determine the particular polymorph which is to be nucleated from them and ii) at high density favour the formation of fivefold structures which can frustrate the formation of crystals. These results can shed new light on our understanding of the relationship between crystallization and vitrification.
Core biopsies of the breast: diagnostic pitfalls. - Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide. In this review article, the authors compare and contrast the incidence of breast cancer, and the inherent differences in the United States (US) and India in screening techniques used for diagnosing breast cancer. In spite of these differences, core biopsies of the breast are common for diagnosis of breast cancer in both countries. The authors describe "Best Practices" in the reporting and processing of core biopsies and in the analysis of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (Her2/neu). The pitfalls in the diagnosis of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast on core biopsy are discussed, as also the significance of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast (PASH) is discussed in core biopsy. In this review, the management and diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and radiation atypia are elaborated and the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in papillary lesions, phyllodes tumor, and complex sclerosing lesions (radial scars) is illustrated. Rarer lesions such as mucinous and histiocytoid carcinoma are also discussed.
No evidence of gas-liquid coexistence in dipolar hard spheres. - Physical review letters
We report accurate calculations of the particle density of states in the dipolar hard-sphere fluid. Implementing efficient and tailored Monte Carlo algorithms, we are able to explore, in equilibrium, the low temperature region where a phase separation between a dilute gas of chain ends and a high-density liquid of chain junctions has been predicted to occur. Our data clearly show that the density of states remains always single peaked, definitively excluding the possibility of critical phenomena in the investigated temperature and density region. The analysis of the low temperature configurations shows that at low densities particles preferentially self-assemble into closed rings, strongly suppressing the chain ends concentration.Â© 2011 American Physical Society
A prospective cohort study of endodontic treatments of 1,369 root canals: results after 5 years. - Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
The purpose of this prospective study was: 1) to follow-up a large number of endodontic treatments performed by a single operator, periodically checked over a 5-year period; and 2) to correlate outcome to a number of clinical variables.This prospective study included all consecutive cases during the selected time period. All cases were followed regularly for a 5-year period. At the 5-year end point of the study, 470 patients with 816 treated teeth and with 1,369 treated root canals were available for evaluation.The overall rate of success among the 816 teeth/1,369 root canals available for evaluation was 88.6%/90.3%. The success rate for 435 teeth/793 root canals undergoing vital pulp therapy was 91.5%/93.1%. Teeth/root canals with necrotic pulp but without detectable periapical bone lesion were successfully treated in 89.5%/92.3%. If the pulp necrosis was complicated by apical periodontitis, the success rate fell to 82.7% for the teeth and 84.1% for the root canals (P = .037). Teeth with periapical lesion <5 mm had a success rate of 86.6%, and in cases where the lesion was â‰¥ 5 mm the rate of success was 78.2%.More severe disease conditions negatively affects outcome. An optimal working length was identified. Excess of root canal filling material decreases success. Infected pulp space should be treated with an effective intracanal dressing. The quality of the coronal restoration or the placement of intracanal post retentions does not affect treatment outcome.Copyright Â© 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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