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Grafting of vinyl acetate-ethylacrylate binary monomer mixture onto guar gum. - International journal of biological macromolecules
Present article reports on guar gum (GG) functionalization through graftcopolymerization of vinylacetate (VAC) and ethylacrylate (EA) from their binary mixtures. The potassium persulfate/ascorbic acid (KPS/AA) redox initiator system has been used for the binary grafting under the previously optimized conditions for VAC grafting at guar gum. The concentration of ascorbic acid (AA), persulfate (KPS), and grafting temperature were varied to optimize the binary grafting. A preliminary investigation revealed that the copolymer has excellent ability to capture Hg(II) from aqueous solution. It was observed that the optimum % grafting sample (CP3) was best at Hg(II) adsorption. CP3 and mercury loaded CP3 (CP3-Hg) have been extensively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and a plausible mechanism for the grafting has been proposed.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Characterization of MycobacteriumÂ smegmatis sigF mutant and its regulon: overexpression of SigF antagonist (MSMEG_1803) in M.Â smegmatis mimics sigF mutant phenotype, loss of pigmentation, and sensitivity to oxidative stress. - MicrobiologyOpen
In Mycobacterium smegmatis, sigF is widely expressed during different growth stages and plays role in adaptation to stationary phase and oxidative stress. Using a sigF deletion mutant of M.Â smegmatis mc(2) 155, we demonstrate that SigF is not essential for growth of bacterium. Deletion of sigF results in loss of carotenoid pigmentation which rendered increased susceptibility to H2 O2 induced oxidative stress in M.Â smegmatis. SigF modulates the cell surface architecture and lipid biosynthesis extending the repertoire of SigF function in this species. M.Â smegmatis SigF regulon included variety of genes expressed during exponential and stationary phases of growth and those responsible for oxidative stress, lipid biosynthesis, energy, and central intermediary metabolism. Furthermore, we report the identification of a SigF antagonist, an anti-sigma factor (RsbW), which upon overexpression in M.Â smegmatis wild type strain produced a phenotype similar to M.Â smegmatis mc(2) 155 Î”sigF strain. The SigF-anti-SigF interaction is duly validated using bacterial two-hybrid and pull down assays. In addition, anti-sigma factor antagonists, RsfA and RsfB were identified and their interactions with anti-sigma factor were experimentally validated. Identification of these proteins will help decode regulatory circuit of this alternate sigma factor.Â© 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Therapeutic Exercise for Temporomandibular Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. - Physical therapy
Manual therapy (MT) and exercise have been extensively used to treat people with musculoskeletal conditions such as temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The evidence regarding their effectiveness provided by early systematic reviews is outdated.The aim of this study was to summarize evidence from and evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of MT and therapeutic exercise interventions compared with other active interventions or standard care for treatment of TMD.Electronic data searches of 6 databases were performed, in addition to a manual search.Randomized controlled trials involving adults with TMD that compared any type of MT intervention (eg, mobilization, manipulation) or exercise therapy with a placebo intervention, controlled comparison intervention, or standard care were included. The main outcomes of this systematic review were pain, range of motion, and oral function. Forty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed.Data were extracted in duplicate on specific study characteristics.The overall evidence for this systematic review was considered low. The trials included in this review had unclear or high risk of bias. Thus, the evidence was generally downgraded based on assessments of risk of bias. Most of the effect sizes were low to moderate, with no clear indication of superiority of exercises versus other conservative treatments for TMD. However, MT alone or in combination with exercises at the jaw or cervical level showed promising effects.Quality of the evidence and heterogeneity of the studies were limitations of the study.No high-quality evidence was found, indicating that there is great uncertainty about the effectiveness of exercise and MT for treatment of TMD.Â© 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.
Intrinsic facilitation of adult peripheral nerve regeneration by the Sonic hedgehog morphogen. - Experimental neurology
Intrinsic molecular determinants of neurodevelopmental outcomes assume new, albeit related roles during adult neural regeneration. Here we studied and identified a facilitatory role for Sonic hedgehog protein (Shh), a morphogen that influences motor neuron floor plate architecture, during adult peripheral neuron regeneration. Shh and its receptors were expressed in adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, axons and glia and trended toward higher levels following axotomy injury. Knockdown of Shh in adult sensory neurons resulted in decreased outgrowth and branching in vitro, identifying a role for Shh in facilitating outgrowth. The findings argued for an intrinsic action to support neuron regeneration. Support of advancement and turning however, were not identified in adult sensory neuron growth cones in response to local extrinsic gradients of Shh. That intrinsic Shh supported the regrowth of peripheral nerves after injury was confirmed by the analysis of axon regrowth from the proximal stumps of transected sciatic nerves. By exposing regenerating axons to local infusions of Shh siRNA in vivo within a conduit bridging the transected proximal and distal stumps, we achieved local knockdown of Shh. In response, there was attenuated axonal and Schwann cell outgrowth beyond the transection zone. Unlike its role during neurodevelopment, Shh facilitates but does not confer regenerative outgrowth properties to adult neurons alone. Exploring the differing properties of morphogens and related proteins in the adult nervous system identifies new and important roles for them.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Evidence for Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression and Function in Chronic Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy. - Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a common but irreversible neurodegenerative complication of diabetes mellitus. Here we show that features of sensory neuron damage in mice with chronic DPN may have altered epigenetic micro RNA (miRNA) transcriptional control. We profiled sensory neuron messenger RNA and miRNA profiles in mice with type I diabetes mellitus and findings of DPN. Diabetic sensory dorsal root ganglia neurons showed a pattern of altered messenger RNA profiles associated with upregulated cytoplasmic sites of miRNA-mediated messenger RNA processing (GW/P bodies). Dorsal root ganglia miRNA microarray identified significant changes in expression among mice with diabetes, the most prominent of which were a 39% downregulation of mmu-let-7i and a 255% increase in mmu-miR-341; both were identified in sensory neurons. To counteract these alterations, we replenished let-7i miRNA by intranasal administration; in a separate experiment, we added an anti-miR that antagonized elevated mmu-341 after 5 months of diabetes. Both approaches independently improved electrophysiologic, structural, and behavioral abnormalities without altering hyperglycemia; control sequences did not have these effects. Dissociated adult sensory neurons exposed to an exogenous mmu-let-7i mimic displayed enhanced growth and branching, indicating a trophic action. These findings identify roles for epigenetic miRNA alterations and enhanced GW/P expression in diabetic dorsal root ganglia that contribute to the complex DPN phenotype.
The role of salivary caffeine clearance in the diagnosis of chronic liver disease. - Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research
Chronic liver diseases (CLD) are quite prevalent throughout the globe. Its early and correct diagnosis is always a concern among physicians, especially the residual liver function. For this various substrates like caffeine are being investigated in body fluids like serum and saliva. Saliva as a study sample has its own advantages due to its non invasiveness; it can be very useful study sample.30 Subjects with CLD and 15 healthy controls were administered 200Â mg of caffeine. Subjects classified into severity groups (class-A-mild-nÂ =Â 9, B-moderate-nÂ =Â 11, and C-severe-nÂ =Â 10) based on "Child-pugh classification" of severity of liver disease. After 17Â h of dietary caffeine restriction and before drug administration, 0Â h salivary sample was taken. After the dose of caffeine, 4 and 16Â h saliva sample was taken. Blood sample was taken from controls only at same time points. These samples were analyzed on semi automated analyzer using Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) by spectrophotometric method. Caffeine clearance values were calculated and results were statistically analyzed.Significant correlation was found between serum caffeine clearance and salivary caffeine clearance (SCC). Controls showed higher mean of SCC value of 1.6Â Â±Â 0.2Â ml/min/kg while SCC values of subjects were less, with mean of 0.5Â Â±Â 0.2Â ml/min/kg. Significant correlation was found between degree of hepatic dysfunction and SCC values.Saliva can be used for diagnosis of CLD and assessment of residual liver function in CLD as alternative to serum.
Direct observation of preferential processing of clustered abasic DNA damages with APE1 in TATA box and CpG island by reaction kinetics and fluorescence dynamics. - Mutation research
Sequences like the core element of TATA box and CpG island are frequently encountered in the genome and related to transcription. The fate of repair of clustered abasic sites in such sequences of genomic importance is largely unknown. This prompted us to investigate the sequence dependence of cleavage efficiency of APE1 enzyme at abasic sites within the core sequences of TATA box and CpG island using fluorescence dynamics and reaction kinetics. Simultaneous molecular dynamics study through steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy using unique ethidium bromide dye release assay confirmed an elevated amount of abasic site cleavage of the TATA box sequence as compared to the core CpG island. Reaction kinetics showed that catalytic efficiency of APE1 for abasic site cleavage of core CpG island sequence was âˆ¼4 times lower as compared to that of the TATA box. Higher value of Km was obtained from the core CpG island sequence than the TATA box sequence. This suggests a greater binding effect of APE1 enzyme on TATA sequence that signifies a prominent role of the sequence context of the DNA substrate. Evidently, a faster response from APE1 was obtained for clustered abasic damage repair of TATA box core sequences than CpG island consensus sequences. The neighboring bases of the abasic sites in the complementary DNA strand were found to have significant contribution in addition to the flanking bases in modulating APE1 activity. The repair refractivity of the bistranded clustered abasic sites arise from the slow processing of the second abasic site, consequently resulting in decreased overall production of potentially lethal double strand breaks.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The road to radiation protection: a rocky path. - Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR
Radiation has intrigued us with its magnificent properties of imaging and healing. But this discovery, like many others, came with a heavy price. The pioneers of this form of energy themselves often succumbed to its devastating effects and hence, paved a way for future generations to be wary of it, while continuing to use it. This paper attempts to salute those masters who have helped make the radiation world a safer place to live and work in.
DNA mediated assembly of quantum dot-protoporphyrin IX FRET probes and the effect of FRET efficiency on ROS generation. - Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the irradiation of a photosensitizer. Controlled and targeted release of ROS by a photosensitizer is crucial in PDT. For achieving controlled generation of ROS, a ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) donor and protoporphyrin IX (Pp IX) acceptor based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe is reported here. The QDs and Pp IX are assembled either by direct conjugation or through DNA hybridization. Complementary DNA strands are individually conjugated to the QDs and Pp IX by amide coupling. Due to the overlap of the emission spectrum of QDs and the absorption spectrum of Pp IX, efficient transfer of energy from QDs to Pp IX was observed in both the cases. The FRET efficiency was quantitatively evaluated by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy and compared between the QD-Pp IX direct conjugate and QD-DNA-Pp IX assembly at various donor to acceptor ratios. Since a single QD can harbor a multiple number of Pp IX-DNA counterparts through DNA hybridization, the FRET efficiency was found to increase with the increase in the number of Pp IX acceptors. ROS generation from Pp IX was studied for the FRET pairs and was found to be affected by the irradiation time of the QD donor.
Association between sleep bruxism and psychosocial factors in children and adolescents: a systematic review. - Clinical pediatrics
To summarize the association between sleep bruxism and psychosocial factors in children and adolescents.Individual search strategies for five databases were developed. The references cited in the selected articles were checked and a partial gray literature search was undertaken. Only articles that used the international diagnostic criteria for sleep bruxism as proposed by the American Association of Sleep Medicine were included. Any form of reporting of psychosocial factors was considered.Of the 44 retained articles, only 7 studies were finally included for the qualitative/quantitative synthesis. No evidence supportive of an association between sleep bruxism and psychosocial factors in children younger than 5 years emerged. A significant association was present in children between 6 and 11 years old and in adolescents 12 to 17 years old. Risk of bias was low-to-moderate in most of the included studies.The current available evidence suggests an association between sleep bruxism and psychological factors in children older than 6 years.Â© The Author(s) 2014.
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