2241 Bill Foster Memorial Hwy Ste F
Cabot AR 72023
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The Contribution of the Corpus Callosum to Language Lateralization. - The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
The development of hemispheric lateralization for language is poorly understood. In one hypothesis, early asymmetric gene expression assigns language to the left hemisphere. In an alternate view, language is represented a priori in both hemispheres and lateralization emerges via cross-hemispheric communication through the corpus callosum. To address this second hypothesis, we capitalized on the high temporal and spatial resolution of magnetoencephalographic imaging to measure cortical activity during language processing, speech preparation, and speech execution in 25 participants with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and 21 matched neurotypical individuals. In contrast to strongly lateralized left hemisphere activations for language in neurotypical controls, participants with complete or partial AgCC exhibited bilateral hemispheric activations in both auditory or visually driven language tasks, with complete AgCC participants showing significantly more right hemisphere activations than controls or than individuals with partial AgCC. In AgCC individuals, language laterality positively correlated with verbal IQ. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum helps to drive language lateralization.The role that corpus callosum development has on the hemispheric specialization of language is poorly understood. Here, we used magnetoencephalographic imaging during linguistic tests (verb generation, picture naming) to test for hemispheric dominance in patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and found reduced laterality (i.e., greater likelihood of bilaterality or right hemisphere dominance) in this cohort compared with controls, especially in patients with complete agenesis. Laterality was positively correlated with behavioral measures of verbal intelligence. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that the callosum aids in functional specialization throughout neural development and that the loss of this mechanism correlates with impairments in verbal performance.Copyright Â© 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/364522-12$15.00/0.
Nonsyndromic Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection: Outcomes With Marfan Syndrome Versus Bicuspid Aortic ValveÂ Aneurysm. - Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Genetic aortopathy (GA) underlies thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) in younger adults. Comparative survival and predictors of outcomes in nonsyndromic TAA (NS-TAA) are incompletely defined compared to Marfan syndrome (MFS) and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV).The study sought to compare survival and clinical outcomes for individuals with NS-TAA, MFS, and BAV.From 1988 to 2014, all patients presenting with GA 16 to 60 years of age were enrolled in a prospective study of clinical outcomes. Risk factors for death and aortic dissection were identified by Cox proportional hazards modeling and a mortality risk score developed.Diagnosis of GA was made for 760 patients (age 36.9 Â± 13.6 years, 26.8% female; NS-TAA, nÂ = 311; MFS, nÂ =Â 221; BAV, nÂ = 228). MFS patients were younger than NS-TAA and BAV. Presentation with aortic dissection was more common for NS-TAA than MFS or BAV. The 687 patients surviving >30 days after presentation were followed for a median of 7 years. Calculated 10-year mortality was 7.8% for NS-TAA, 8.7% for MFS, and 3.5% for BAV (NS-TAA and MFS vs. BAV pÂ <0.05). Factors associated with all-cause mortality were MFS (pÂ = 0.04), age at presentation, and family history of dissection.Clinical outcomes for MFS and NS-TAA are similar but worse than BAV. Independent predictors of mortality, including family history of aortic dissection and age, can be included in an Aortopathy Mortality Risk Score to predict survival. Management of NS-TAA, including surgical intervention, should be similar to that of MFS.Copyright Â© 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MRI in Chronic Aortic Dissection: A Systematic Review and Future Directions. - Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine
The acute event of thoracic aortic dissection carries with it high mortality and morbidity. Despite optimal initial surgical or medical management strategies, the risk of further complications in the long-term, including aneurysmal dilatation and false lumen (FL) expansion, are not insignificant. Adequate follow-up of such conditions requires dedicated imaging where relevant prognostic indicators are accurately assessed. We perform a systematic review of the literature and report the current evidence for the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in assessment of chronic aortic dissection. We then make a comparison with traditional imaging modalities including computed tomography and echocardiography. We discuss new ways in which MRI may extend existing aortic assessment, including identification of blood-flow dynamics within the TL and FL using phase-contrast imaging.
Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarization and Coronary Vasodilation: Diverse and Integrated Roles of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Gap Junctions. - Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994)
Myocardial perfusion and coronary vascular resistance are regulated by signaling metabolites released from the local myocardium that act either directly on the VSMC or indirectly via stimulation of the endothelium. A prominent mechanism of vasodilation is EDH of the arteriolar smooth muscle, with EETs and H(2)O(2) playing important roles in EDH in the coronary microcirculation. In some cases, EETs and H(2)O(2) are released as transferable hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) that act directly on the VSMCs. By contrast, EETs and H(2)O(2) can also promote endothelial KCa activity secondary to the amplification of extracellular Ca(2+) influx and Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores, respectively. The resulting endothelial hyperpolarization may subsequently conduct to the media via myoendothelial gap junctions or potentially lead to the release of a chemically distinct factor(s). Furthermore, in human isolated coronary arterioles dilator signaling involving EETs and H(2)O(2) may be integrated, being either complimentary or inhibitory depending on the stimulus. With an emphasis on the human coronary microcirculation, this review addresses the diverse and integrated mechanisms by which EETs and H(2)O(2) regulate vessel tone and also examines the hypothesis that myoendothelial microdomain signaling facilitates EDH activity in the human heart.Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
CSANZ Position Statement on Sedation for Cardiovascular Procedures (2014). - Heart, lung & circulation
The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ) Position Statement describes evidence-based standards of training, pre-procedural assessment, procedural conduct and post-procedure care with respect to sedation for cardiovascular procedures. It also describes the environment in which sedation for electrophysiological and other cardiac procedures may be performed. This Statement was developed by a Working Group of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. It was reviewed by the Continuing Education and Recertification Committee and ratified at the CSANZ Board meeting held on Friday 7 March 2014.Crown Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Long Term Outcomes Following Freestyle Stentless Aortic Bioprosthesis Implantation: An Australian Experience. - Heart, lung & circulation
The Freestyle stentless bioprosthesis (FSB) has been demonstrated to be a durable prosthesis in the aortic position. We present data following Freestyle implantation for up to 10 years post-operatively and compare this with previously published results.A retrospective cohort analysis of 237 patients following FSB implantation occurred at five Australian hospitals. Follow-up data included clinical and echocardiographic outcomes.The cohort was 81.4% male with age 63.2Â±13.0 years and was followed for a mean of 2.4Â±2.3 years (range 0-10.9 years, total 569 patient-years). The FSB was implanted as a full aortic root replacement in 87.8% patients. The 30-day all cause mortality was 4.2% (2.0% for elective surgery). Cumulative survival at one, five and 10 years was 91.7Â±1.9%, 82.8Â±3.8% and 56.5Â±10.5%, respectively. Freedom from re-intervention at one, five and 10 years was 99.5Â±0.5%, 91.6Â±3.7% and 72.3Â±10.5%, respectively. At latest echocardiographic review (mean 2.3Â±2.1 years post-operatively), 92.6% had trivial or no aortic regurgitation. Predictors of post-operative mortality included active endocarditis, acute aortic dissection and peripheral vascular disease.We report acceptable short and long term outcomes following FSB implantation in a cohort of comparatively younger patients with thoracic aortic disease. The durability of this bioprosthesis in the younger population remains to be confirmed.Copyright Â© 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adjustment and Coping Mechanisms for Individuals with Genetic Aortic Disorders. - Heart, lung & circulation
Advances in diagnosis and management of Genetic Aortic (GA) Disorders have improved prognosis for affected individuals, yet many do not adhere to key management recommendations, and some may experience clinically significant levels of psychological distress. These issues are often not communicated to treating clinicians. Poor adjustment and coping may adversely impact on prognosis, but little is known about the processes contributing to negative outcomes. This study investigated adjustment to GA disorders to determine which processes facilitated or hindered good adherence and psychological outcomes.Semi-structured interviews involving 21 individuals (12M, 9 F; age 19-62 years) with a GA Disorder and psychosocial measures of depression/stress/anxiety (DASS), coping (COPE) and involvement in treatment (CPS) were used. Qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory and a model of adjustment was developed.Although most participants adhered to physician management recommendations and experienced minimal emotional distress, a subset reported poor adherence and/or sub/clinical levels of depression/anxiety/stress (29%). Dysfunctional coping mechanisms were infrequent, however 22% participants reported 'little or no' acceptance and 43% avoided life planning in response to a diagnosis of GA disorder. Interviews revealed an overarching theme: Negotiating perception of self and GA disorder, supported by five sub-themes: Restrictions upon Lifestyle, Destabilisation, Future, Support, and Unmet Needs. Accepting restrictions and having support were conducive to better adherence, whilst destabilisation and loss of control had a negative impact. A model of adjustment is proposed to explain how patients reached one of four outcomes relating to psychological distress and adherence to physician recommendations. The central tenet of the model is founded on how realistically patients appraise their vulnerability to GA threat and whether they are able to integrate their perceptions of illness with their sense of self-identity.This study indicates that individuals with GA are at risk of experiencing psychosocial distress and coping difficulties, even years after diagnosis. Key factors likely to be associated with impaired coping among GA patients include inability to integrate the illness into one's identity/life, or to follow physician recommendations. Potential unmet needs were identified, including the provision of more relevant information and opportunities for peer support. These findings may also be applicable to other inherited cardiac disorders.Copyright Â© 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wildfire risk for main vegetation units in a biodiversity hotspot: modeling approach in New Caledonia, South Pacific. - Ecology and evolution
Wildfire has been recognized as one of the most ubiquitous disturbance agents to impact on natural environments. In this study, our main objective was to propose a modeling approach to investigate the potential impact of wildfire on biodiversity. The method is illustrated with an application example in New Caledonia where conservation and sustainable biodiversity management represent an important challenge. Firstly, a biodiversity loss index, including the diversity and the vulnerability indexes, was calculated for every vegetation unit in New Caledonia and mapped according to its distribution over the New Caledonian mainland. Then, based on spatially explicit fire behavior simulations (using the FLAMMAP software) and fire ignition probabilities, two original fire risk assessment approaches were proposed: a one-off event model and a multi-event burn probability model. The spatial distribution of fire risk across New Caledonia was similar for both indices with very small localized spots having high risk. The patterns relating to highest risk are all located around the remaining sclerophyll forest fragments and are representing 0.012% of the mainland surface. A small part of maquis and areas adjacent to dense humid forest on ultramafic substrates should also be monitored. Vegetation interfaces between secondary and primary units displayed high risk and should represent priority zones for fire effects mitigation. Low fire ignition probability in anthropogenic-free areas decreases drastically the risk. A one-off event associated risk allowed localizing of the most likely ignition areas with potential for extensive damage. Emergency actions could aim limiting specific fire spread known to have high impact or consist of on targeting high risk areas to limit one-off fire ignitions. Spatially explicit information on burning probability is necessary for setting strategic fire and fuel management planning. Both risk indices provide clues to preserve New Caledonia hot spot of biodiversity facing wildfires.
Wnt5a-induced Wnt1-inducible secreted protein-1 suppresses vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. - Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to thinning and rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque fibrous cap and is thereby associated with myocardial infarction. Wnt protein activation of Î²-catenin regulates numerous genes that are associated with cell survival. We therefore investigated Wnt/Î²-catenin survival signaling in VSMCs and assessed the presence of this pathway in human atherosclerotic plaques at various stages of the disease process.Wnt5a induced Î²-catenin/T-cell factor signaling and retarded oxidative stress (Hâ‚‚Oâ‚‚)-induced apoptosis in mouse aortic VSMCs. Quantification of mRNA levels revealed a >4-fold (P<0.05; n=9) increase in the expression of the Wnt/Î²-catenin responsive gene, Wnt1-inducible secreted protein-1 (WISP-1), which was dependent on cAMP response element-binding protein and sustained in the presence of Hâ‚‚Oâ‚‚. Exogenous WISP-1 significantly reduced Hâ‚‚Oâ‚‚-induced apoptosis by 43% (P<0.05; n=3) and was shown using silencing small interfering RNA, to be important for Wnt5a-dependent survival responses to Hâ‚‚Oâ‚‚ (P<0.05; n=3). WISP-1 protein levels were significantly lower (â‰ˆ50%) in unstable atherosclerosis compared with stable plaques (n=11 and n=14).These results indicate for the first time that Wnt5a induces Î²-catenin survival signaling in VSMCs via WISP-1. The deficiency of the novel survival factor, WISP-1 in intimal VSMCs of unstable coronary plaques, suggests that there is altered Wnt/Î²-catenin/ T-cell factor signaling with progressive atherosclerosis, and restoration of WISP-1 protein might be an effective stabilization factor for vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques.Â© 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Identifying the effect of cleft type, deprivation and ethnicity on speech and dental outcomes in UK cleft patients: a multi-centred study. - Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
Outcome measures are increasingly important in the modern National Health Service. In the care of children born with cleft lip and/or palate there are many different outcomes to consider but only a few reliable, validated outcome measures exist. The dmft (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and cleft speech characteristics (CSCs) are used regularly by cleft teams throughout the UK to assess outcomes in children with cleft lip and/or palate. We hypothesized that these two outcome measures might be significantly influenced by the demographics of the populations studied independent of the care provided.A retrospective review of all patients aged between five and six referred to three regional cleft centres during a twelve month period were included in the study. Speech and dental outcomes were compared with patient ethnicity, cleft type and level of deprivation as determined by the Carstairs score.The data of 287 patients were used. Speech was significantly affected by cleft type (p < 0.03), whereas dentition was significantly affected by ethnicity (p = 0.002) and deprivation (p = 0.012).This study demonstrates that the demographics of cleft populations can significantly affect the measures of outcome used to assess the quality of care provided by cleft teams. It has also demonstrated that these demographics are not evenly distributed across the country and that some cleft teams will have a more 'at risk' population than others.Risk, level II.Copyright Â© 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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2241 Bill Foster Memorial Hwy Ste F Cabot, AR 72023