2100 Erwin Rd
Durham NC 27710
Medical School: University Of California, California College Of Medicine - 1987
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: Yes
Participates In PQRS: Yes
Participates In EHR: Yes
License #: T-02243
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Awards & Recognitions
Dr. Monica Kraft is associated with these group practices
|HCPCS Code||Description||Average Price||Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
|HCPCS Code:94620||Description:Pulmonary stress test/simple||Average Price:$351.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99205||Description:Office/outpatient visit new||Average Price:$366.57||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:94729||Description:C02/membane diffuse capacity||Average Price:$199.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:94726||Description:Pulm funct tst plethysmograp||Average Price:$200.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:94060||Description:Evaluation of wheezing||Average Price:$178.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:99214||Description:Office/outpatient visit est||Average Price:$195.93||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:94010||Description:Breathing capacity test||Average Price:$107.00||Average Price Allowed
|HCPCS Code:94640||Description:Airway inhalation treatment||Average Price:$47.80||Average Price Allowed
HCPCS Code Definitions
- Spirometry, including graphic record, total and timed vital capacity, expiratory flow rate measurement(s), with or without maximal voluntary ventilation
- Bronchodilation responsiveness, spirometry as in 94010, pre- and post-bronchodilator administration
- Pulmonary stress testing; simple (eg, 6-minute walk test, prolonged exercise test for bronchospasm with pre- and post-spirometry and oximetry)
- Pressurized or nonpressurized inhalation treatment for acute airway obstruction or for sputum induction for diagnostic purposes (eg, with an aerosol generator, nebulizer, metered dose inhaler or intermittent positive pressure breathing [IPPB] device)
- Plethysmography for determination of lung volumes and, when performed, airway resistance
- Diffusing capacity (eg, carbon monoxide, membrane) (List separately in addition to code for primary procedure)
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of a new patient, which requires these 3 key components: A comprehensive history; A comprehensive examination; Medical decision making of high complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 60 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A detailed history; A detailed examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 25 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
Medical Malpractice Cases
Medical Board Sanctions
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Kraft has made to other doctors
Identification and Quantitation of Coding Variants and Isoforms of Pulmonary Surfactant Protein A. - Journal of proteome research
Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A), a heterooligomer of SP-A1 and SP-A2, is an important regulator of innate immunity of the lung. Nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants of SP-A have been linked to respiratory diseases, but the expressed repertoire of SP-A protein in human airway has not been investigated. Here, we used parallel trypsin and Glu-C digestion, followed by LC-MS/MS, to obtain sequence coverage of common SP-A variants and isoform-determining peptides. We further developed a SDS-PAGE-based, multiple reaction monitoring (GeLC-MRM) assay for enrichment and targeted quantitation of total SP-A, the SP-A2 isoform, and the Gln223 and Lys223 variants of SP-A, from as little as one milliliter of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. This assay identified individuals with the three genotypes at the 223 position of SP-A2: homozygous major (Gln223/Gln223), homozygous minor (Lys223/Lys223), or heterozygous (Gln223/Lys223). More generally, our studies demonstrate the challenges inherent in distinguishing highly homologous, copurifying protein isoforms by MS and show the applicability of MRM mass spectrometry for identification and quantitation of nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants and other proteoforms in airway lining fluid.
Effect of vitamin D3 on asthma treatment failures in adults with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels: the VIDA randomized clinical trial. - JAMA
In asthma and other diseases, vitamin D insufficiency is associated with adverse outcomes. It is not known if supplementing inhaled corticosteroids with oral vitamin D3 improves outcomes in patients with asthma and vitamin D insufficiency.To evaluate if vitamin D supplementation would improve the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels.The VIDA (Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma) randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial studying adult patients with symptomatic asthma and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 30 ng/mL was conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by January 2014. After a run-in period that included treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid, 408 patients were randomized.Oral vitamin D3 (100,000 IU once, then 4000 IU/d for 28 weeks; nâ€‰=â€‰201) or placebo (nâ€‰=â€‰207) was added to inhaled ciclesonide (320 Âµg/d). If asthma control was achieved after 12 weeks, ciclesonide was tapered to 160 Âµg/d for 8 weeks, then to 80 Âµg/d for 8 weeks if asthma control was maintained.The primary outcome was time to first asthma treatment failure (a composite outcome of decline in lung function and increases in use of Î²-agonists, systemic corticosteroids, and health care).Treatment with vitamin D3 did not alter the rate of first treatment failure during 28 weeks (28% [95% CI, 21%-34%] with vitamin D3 vs 29% [95% CI, 23%-35%] with placebo; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.9 [95% CI, 0.6-1.3]). Of 14 prespecified secondary outcomes, 9 were analyzed, including asthma exacerbation; of those 9, the only statistically significant outcome was a small difference in the overall dose of ciclesonide required to maintain asthma control (111.3 Âµg/d [95% CI, 102.2-120.4 Âµg/d] in the vitamin D3 group vs 126.2 Âµg/d [95% CI, 117.2-135.3 Âµg/d] in the placebo group; difference of 14.9 Âµg/d [95% CI, 2.1-27.7 Âµg/d]).Vitamin D3 did not reduce the rate of first treatment failure or exacerbation in adults with persistent asthma and vitamin D insufficiency. These findings do not support a strategy of therapeutic vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with symptomatic asthma.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01248065.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-patient characteristics and health impairment. - COPD
Abstract Background: Persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or asthma have great risk for morbidity. There has been sparse state-specific surveillance data to estimate the impact of COPD or COPD with concomitant asthma (overlap syndrome) on health-related impairment.The North Carolina (NC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) was used to assess relationships between COPD and asthma with health impairment indicators. Five categories [COPD, current asthma, former asthma, overlap syndrome, and neither] were defined for 24,073 respondents. Associations of these categories with health impairments (physical or mental disability, use of special equipment, mental or physical distress) and with co-morbidities (diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and high blood pressure) were assessed.Fifteen percent of NC adults reported a COPD and/or asthma history. The overall age-adjusted prevalence of any self-reported COPD and current asthma were 5.6% and 7.6%, respectively; 2.4% reported both. In multivariable analyses, adults with overlap syndrome, current asthma only, and COPD only were twice as likely as those with neither disease to report health impairments (p < 0.05). Compared to those with neither disease, adults with overlap syndrome and COPD were more likely to have co-morbidities (p < 0.05). The prevalence of the five co-morbid conditions was highest in overlap syndrome; comparisons with the other groups were significant (p < 0.05) only for diabetes, stroke, and arthritis.The BRFSS demonstrates different levels of health impairment among persons with COPD, asthma, overlap syndrome, and those with neither disease. Persons reporting overlap syndrome had the most impairment and highest prevalence of co-morbidities.
Predictors of response to tiotropium versus salmeterol in asthmatic adults. - The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
Tiotropium has activity as an asthma controller. However, predictors of a positive response to tiotropium have not been described.We sought to describe individual and differential responses of asthmatic patients to salmeterol and tiotropium when added to an inhaled corticosteroid, as well as predictors of a positive clinical response.Data from the double-blind, 3-way, crossover National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Asthma Clinical Research Network's Tiotropium Bromide as an Alternative to Increased Inhaled Glucocorticoid in Patients Inadequately Controlled on a Lower Dose of Inhaled Corticosteroid (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00565266) trial were analyzed for individual and differential treatment responses to salmeterol and tiotropium and predictors of a positive response to the end points FEV1, morning peak expiratory flow (PEF), and asthma control days (ACDs).Although approximately equal numbers of patients showed a differential response to salmeterol and tiotropium in terms of morning PEF (n = 90 and 78, respectively) and ACDs (n = 49 and 53, respectively), more showed a differential response to tiotropium for FEV1 (n = 104) than salmeterol (n = 62). An acute response to a short-acting bronchodilator, especially albuterol, predicted a positive clinical response to tiotropium for FEV1 (odds ratio, 4.08; 95% CI, 2.00-8.31; P < .001) and morning PEF (odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.12-4.01; P = 0.021), as did a decreased FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1 response increased 0.39% of baseline for every 1% decrease in FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio). Higher cholinergic tone was also a predictor, whereas ethnicity, sex, atopy, IgE level, sputum eosinophil count, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, asthma duration, and body mass index were not.Although these results require confirmation, predictors of a positive clinical response to tiotropium include a positive response to albuterol and airway obstruction, factors that could help identify appropriate patients for this therapy.Copyright Â© 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society policy statement: disparities in respiratory health. - American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Health disparities, defined as a significant difference in health between populations, are more common for diseases of the respiratory system than for those of other organ systems, because of the environmental influence on breathing and the variation of the environment among different segments of the population. The lowest social groups are up to 14 times more likely to have respiratory diseases than are the highest. Tobacco smoke, air pollution, environmental exposures, and occupational hazards affect the lungs more than other organs, and occur disproportionately in ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Lack of access to quality health care contributes to disparities.The executive committees of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) established a writing committee to develop a policy on health disparities. The document was reviewed, edited, and approved by the full executive committees and boards of directors of the societies.This document expresses a policy to address health disparities by promoting scientific inquiry and training, disseminating medical information and best practices, and monitoring and advocating for public respiratory health. ERS and ATS have strong international commitments, and work with leaders from governments, academia, and organizations to address and reduce avoidable health inequalities. Their training initiatives improve the function of health care systems and health equality. Both the ATS and ERS support all aspects of this document, confer regularly, and act together when possible, but the activities to bring about change may vary because of the differences in the continents where the two organizations carry out most of their activities.The ATS and ERS pledge to frame their actions to reduce respiratory health disparities. The vision of the ATS and ERS is that all persons attain better and sustained respiratory health. They call on all their members and other societies to join in this commitment.
An official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society policy statement: disparities in respiratory health. - The European respiratory journal
Health disparities, defined as a significant difference in health between populations, are more common for diseases of the respiratory system than for those of other organ systems, because of the environmental influence on breathing and the variation of the environment among different segments of the population. The lowest social groups are up to 14 times more likely to have respiratory diseases than are the highest. Tobacco smoke, air pollution, environmental exposures, and occupational hazards affect the lungs more than other organs and occur disproportionately in ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Lack of access to quality healthcare contributes to disparities. The executive committees of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) established a writing committee to develop a policy on health disparities. The document was reviewed, edited, and approved by their full executive committees and boards of directors of the societies. This document expresses a policy to address health disparities by promoting scientific inquiry and training, disseminating medical information and best practices, and monitoring and advocating for public respiratory health. The ERS and the ATS have strong international commitments and work with leaders from governments, academia, and other organisational bodies to address and reduce avoidable health inequalities. Their training initiatives improve the function of healthcare systems and health equality. Both the ATS and the ERS support all aspects of this document, confer regularly, and act together when possible, but the activities to bring about change may vary because of the differences in the continents where the two organisations carry out most of their activities. The ATS and ERS pledge to frame their actions to reduce respiratory health disparities. The vision of the ATS and ERS is that all persons attain better and sustained respiratory health. They call on all their members and other societies to join in this commitment.
Bronchial thermoplasty: Long-term safety and effectiveness in patients with severe persistent asthma. - The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has previously been shown to improve asthma control out to 2 years in patients with severe persistent asthma.We sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of BT in asthmatic patients 5 years after therapy.BT-treated subjects from the Asthma Intervention Research 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01350414) were evaluated annually for 5 years to assess the long-term safety of BT and the durability of its treatment effect. Outcomes assessed after BT included severe exacerbations, adverse events, health care use, spirometric data, and high-resolution computed tomographic scans.One hundred sixty-two (85.3%) of 190 BT-treated subjects from the Asthma Intervention Research 2 trial completed 5 years of follow-up. The proportion of subjects experiencing severe exacerbations and emergency department (ED) visits and the rates of events in each of years 1 to 5 remained low and were less than those observed in the 12 months before BT treatment (average 5-year reduction in proportions: 44% for exacerbations and 78% for ED visits). Respiratory adverse events and respiratory-related hospitalizations remained unchanged in years 2 through 5 compared with the first year after BT. Prebronchodilator FEVâ‚ values remained stable between years 1 and 5 after BT, despite a 18% reduction in average daily inhaled corticosteroid dose. High-resolution computed tomographic scans from baseline to 5 years after BT showed no structural abnormalities that could be attributed to BT.These data demonstrate the 5-year durability of the benefits of BT with regard to both asthma control (based on maintained reduction in severe exacerbations and ED visits for respiratory symptoms) and safety. BT has become an important addition to our treatment armamentarium and should be considered for patients with severe persistent asthma who remain symptomatic despite taking inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting Î²â‚‚-agonists.Copyright Â© 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Interleukin-13 induces collagen type-1 expression through matrix metalloproteinase-2 and transforming growth factor-Î²1 in airway fibroblasts in asthma. - The European respiratory journal
Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma that contributes to loss of lung function. One of the central components of airway remodelling is subepithelial fibrosis. Interleukin (IL)-13 is a key T-helper 2 cytokine and is believed to be the central mediator of allergic asthma including remodelling, but the mechanism driving the latter has not been elucidated in human asthma. We hypothesised that IL-13 stimulates collagen type-1 production by the airway fibroblast in a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)- and transforming growth factor (TGF)-Î²1-dependent manner in human asthma as compared to healthy controls. Fibroblasts were cultured from endobronchial biopsies in 14 subjects with mild asthma and 13 normal controls that underwent bronchoscopy. Airway fibroblasts were treated with various mediators including IL-13 and specific MMP-inhibitors. IL-13 significantly stimulated collagen type-1 production in asthma compared to normal controls. Inhibitors of MMP-2 significantly attenuated collagen production in asthma but had no effect in normal controls. IL-13 significantly increased total and active forms of TGF-Î²1, and this activation was blocked using an MMP-2 inhibitor. IL-13 activated endogenous MMP-2 in asthma patients as compared to normal controls. In an ex vivo model, IL-13 potentiates airway remodelling through a mechanism involving TGF-Î²1 and MMP-2. These effects provide insights into the mechanism involved in IL-13-directed airway remodelling in asthma.
Assessment of murine lung mechanics outcome measures: alignment with those made in asthmatics. - Frontiers in physiology
Although asthma is characterized as an inflammatory disease, recent reports highlight the importance of pulmonary physiology outcome measures to the clinical assessment of asthma control and risk of asthma exacerbation. Murine models of allergic inflammatory airway disease have been widely used to gain mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of asthma; however, several aspects of murine models could benefit from improvement. This review focuses on aligning lung mechanics measures made in mice with those made in humans, with an eye toward improving the translational utility of these measures. A brief description of techniques available to measure murine lung mechanics is provided along with a methodological consideration of their utilization. How murine lung mechanics outcome measures relate to pulmonary physiology measures conducted in humans is discussed and we recommend that, like human studies, outcome measures be standardized for murine models of asthma.
P2X7-regulated protection from exacerbations and loss of control is independent of asthma maintenance therapy. - American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
The function of the P2X(7) nucleotide receptor protects against exacerbation in people with mild-intermittent asthma during viral illnesses, but the impact of disease severity and maintenance therapy has not been studied.To evaluate the association between P2X(7), asthma exacerbations, and incomplete symptom control in a more diverse population.A matched P2RX7 genetic case-control was performed with samples from Asthma Clinical Research Network trial participants enrolled before July 2006, and P2X(7) pore activity was determined in whole blood samples as an ancillary study to two trials completed subsequently.A total of 187 exacerbations were studied in 742 subjects, and the change in asthma symptom burden was studied in an additional 110 subjects during a trial of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) dose optimization. African American carriers of the minor G allele of the rs2230911 loss-of-function single nucleotide polymorphism were more likely to have a history of prednisone use in the previous 12 months, with adjustment for ICS and long-acting Î²(2)-agonists use (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.2; P = 0.018). Despite medium-dose ICS, attenuated pore function predicted earlier exacerbations in incompletely controlled patients with moderate asthma (hazard ratio, 3.2; confidence interval, 1.1-9.3; P = 0.033). After establishing control with low-dose ICS in patients with mild asthma, those with attenuated pore function had more asthma symptoms, rescue albuterol use, and FEV(1) reversal (P < 0.001, 0.03, and 0.03, respectively) during the ICS adjustment phase.P2X(7) pore function protects against exacerbations of asthma and loss of control, independent of baseline severity and the maintenance therapy.
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2100 Erwin Rd Durham, NC 27710
40 Duke Medicine Cir