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The Protectin PCTR1 Is Produced by Human M2 Macrophages and Enhances Resolution of Infectious Inflammation. - The American journal of pathology
Inflammation and its natural resolution are host-protective responses triggered by infection or injury. The resolution phase of inflammation is regulated by enzymatically produced specialized pro-resolving mediators. We recently identified a new class of peptide-conjugated specialized pro-resolving mediators that carry potent tissue regenerative actions that belong to the protectin family and are coined protectin conjugates in tissue regeneration (PCTR). Herein, with the use of microbial-induced peritonitis in mice and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based lipid mediator metabololipidomics, we found that PCTR1 is temporally regulated during self-resolving infection. When administered at peak of inflammation, PCTR1 enhanced macrophage recruitment and phagocytosis of Escherichia coli, decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, and counter-regulated inflammation-initiating lipid mediators, including prostaglandins. In addition, biologically produced PCTR1 promoted human monocyte and macrophage migration in a dose-dependent manner (0.001 to 10.0 nmol/L). We prepared PCTR1 via organic synthesis and confirmed that synthetic PCTR1 increased macrophage and monocyte migration, enhanced macrophage efferocytosis, and accelerated tissue regeneration in planaria. With human macrophage subsets, PCTR1 levels were significantly higher in M2 macrophages than in M1 phenotype, along with members of the resolvin conjugates in tissue regeneration and maresin conjugate families. In contrast, M1 macrophages gave higher levels of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Together, these results demonstrate that PCTR1 is a potent monocyte/macrophage agonist, regulating key anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving processes during bacterial infection.Copyright Â© 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Functional role of positively selected amino acid substitutions in mammalian rhodopsin evolution. - Scientific reports
Visual rhodopsins are membrane proteins that function as light photoreceptors in the vertebrate retina. Specific amino acids have been positively selected in visual pigments during mammal evolution, which, as products of adaptive selection, would be at the base of important functional innovations. We have analyzed the top candidates for positive selection at the specific amino acids and the corresponding reverse changes (F13M, Q225R and A346S) in order to unravel the structural and functional consequences of these important sites in rhodopsin evolution. We have constructed, expressed and immunopurified the corresponding mutated pigments and analyzed their molecular phenotypes. We find that position 13 is very important for the folding of the receptor and also for proper protein glycosylation. Position 225 appears to be important for the function of the protein affecting the G-protein activation process, and position 346 would also regulate functionality of the receptor by enhancing G-protein activation and presumably affecting protein phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase. Our results represent a link between the evolutionary analysis, which pinpoints the specific amino acid positions in the adaptive process, and the structural and functional analysis, closer to the phenotype, making biochemical sense of specific selected genetic sequences in rhodopsin evolution.
Real-life experience with personally familiar faces enhances discrimination based on global information. - PeerJ
Despite the agreement that experience with faces leads to more efficient processing, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Building on empirical evidence from unfamiliar face processing in healthy populations and neuropsychological patients, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that personal familiarity is associated with superior discrimination when identity information is derived based on global, as opposed to local facial information. Diagnosticity and availability of local and global information was manipulated through varied physical similarity and spatial resolution of morph faces created from personally familiar or unfamiliar faces. We found that discrimination of subtle changes between highly similar morph faces was unaffected by familiarity. Contrariwise, relatively more pronounced physical (i.e., identity) differences were more efficiently discriminated for personally familiar faces, indicating more efficient processing of global, as opposed to local facial information through real-life experience.
Mesenteric Fibromatosis Mimicking Tumor Recurrence Following Radical Cystectomy and Bladder Replacement. - Urology case reports
We report an unusual case of benign tumor mimicking tumor recurrence following radical cystectomy and bladder replacement for high grade urothelial carcinoma.
Progesterone supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition after artificial insemination improves conception rates in high-producing dairy cows. - Theriogenology
This study examines the possible effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition, from Days 15 to 17 post-artificial insemination (AI), on reproductive performance in high-producing dairy cows. Cows in their 15th day post-AI were alternately assigned to a control, no-treatment group (C: nÂ =Â 257) or treatment group (P4: nÂ =Â 287) on a weekly rotational basis according to the chronologic order of their gynecologic visit. On the basis of the odds ratio, the interaction treatment Ã— previous placenta retention had a significant effect (PÂ =Â 0.02) on conception rate. Thus, cows in P4 that had not suffered a retained placenta were 1.6 times more likely to conceive 28 to 34Â days post-AI than the remaining cows. In nonpregnant cows, treatment had no effect on subsequent return to estrus or AI interval and neither were any effects of treatment observed on twin pregnancy and early fetal loss rates. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of P4 supplementations during the time of pregnancy recognition after AI in cows without a clinical history of placenta retention.Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Transitions between Multiband Oscillatory Patterns Characterize Memory-Guided Perceptual Decisions in Prefrontal Circuits. - The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Neuronal activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) reflects the structure and cognitive demands of memory-guided sensory discrimination tasks. However, we still do not know how neuronal activity articulates in network states involved in perceiving, remembering, and comparing sensory information during such tasks. Oscillations in local field potentials (LFPs) provide fingerprints of such network dynamics. Here, we examined LFPs recorded from LPFC of macaques while they compared the directions or the speeds of two moving random-dot patterns, S1 and S2, separated by a delay. LFP activity in the theta, beta, and gamma bands tracked consecutive components of the task. In response to motion stimuli, LFP theta and gamma power increased, and beta power decreased, but showed only weak motion selectivity. In the delay, LFP beta power modulation anticipated the onset of S2 and encoded the task-relevant S1 feature, suggesting network dynamics associated with memory maintenance. After S2 onset the difference between the current stimulus S2 and the remembered S1 was strongly reflected in broadband LFP activity, with an early sensory-related component proportional to stimulus difference and a later choice-related component reflecting the behavioral decision buildup. Our results demonstrate that individual LFP bands reflect both sensory and cognitive processes engaged independently during different stages of the task. This activation pattern suggests that during elementary cognitive tasks, the prefrontal network transitions dynamically between states and that these transitions are characterized by the conjunction of LFP rhythms rather than by single LFP bands.Neurons in the brain communicate through electrical impulses and coordinate this activity in ensembles that pulsate rhythmically, very much like musical instruments in an orchestra. These rhythms change with "brain state," from sleep to waking, but also signal with different oscillation frequencies rapid changes between sensory and cognitive processing. Here, we studied rhythmic electrical activity in the monkey prefrontal cortex, an area implicated in working memory, decision making, and executive control. Monkeys had to identify and remember a visual motion pattern and compare it to a second pattern. We found orderly transitions between rhythmic activity where the same frequency channels were active in all ongoing prefrontal computations. This supports prefrontal circuit dynamics that transitions rapidly between complex rhythmic patterns during structured cognitive tasks.Copyright Â© 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/360489-17$15.00/0.
Inspiratory capacity-to-total lung capacity ratio and dyspnoea predict exercise capacity decline in COPD. - Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)
Exercise capacity decline is a predictor of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Static pulmonary hyperinflation is a key determinant of exercise performance, but its effect on the longitudinal decline in exercise capacity remains unknown. We aimed to study the relationship between the inspiratory capacity-to-total lung capacity (IC/TLC) ratio and exercise capacity decline in COPD.We measured IC/TLC and other relevant clinical and functional variables in 342 clinically stable patients with COPD. The 6-min walk distance (6MWD) was determined at recruitment and after a meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD of 1.7â€‰Â±â€‰0.3 years. The annual rate of change in 6MWD was calculated. Multiple imputation to account for losses during follow up was implemented, and multivariate regression was used to analyze predictive factors of 6MWD decline.Mean decline rate in the 6MWD was 21.9â€‰Â±â€‰34.1â€‰m/year. In the bivariate analysis, patients with lower levels of IC/TLC had greater 6MWD decline (-27.4â€‰Â±â€‰42.5, -24.9â€‰Â±â€‰36.5 and -13.4â€‰Â±â€‰39.9â€‰m/year in the first, second and third tertile of IC/TLC, respectively; P-for-trendâ€‰=â€‰0.018). From other potential risk factors considered, dyspnoea, health status, serum C-reactive protein and Borg dyspnoea score at the end of the exercise test were related to exercise capacity decline. In the multivariate regression model, only IC/TLC (Î²â€‰=â€‰0.7â€‰m/year per each percentage unit of IC/TLC; Pâ€‰=â€‰0.007) and dyspnoea (mMRCâ€‰â‰¥â€‰2) (Î²â€‰=â€‰-14.6â€‰m/year; Pâ€‰=â€‰0.013) were associated with the annual rate of 6MWD change.IC/TLC and dyspnoea in clinically stable patients with COPD predict their exercise capacity decline and may help to guide early therapeutic interventions.Â© 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Impact of ASUMA Intervention on HIV Risk Behaviors among Puerto Rican Adolescents. - International journal of environmental research and public health
The purpose of this manuscript is to assess and compare HIV risk behaviors among early adolescents after a three-year pilot study. A total of 135 public and private junior high schools students completed the intervention protocol. A self-administered questionnaire was given at baseline and at the end of the third year (fourth measure). Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0. About 60% of the students were 14 years old at the fourth measure. The proportion of students that did not report at least one HIV risk behavior at baseline and those that reported any risk behavior at the fourth measure was lower in the intervention group (45.0%) than in the control group (54.5%). The proportion of students that reported at least one HIV risk behavior at baseline and those that did not report any HIV risk behavior at the fourth measure was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (33.3% vs. 8.3%). The proportion of students engaging in HIV risk behaviors was higher in the control group than in the intervention group at the fourth measure, suggesting that A Supportive Model for HIV Risk Reduction in Early Adolescence (ASUMA) intervention might be a promising initiative to reduce adolescents' engagement in HIV risk behaviors.
Spatio-temporal changes in sea star populations of the genus Astropecten inhabiting soft bottoms in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. - Marine environmental research
Astropecten species inhabit soft-bottom habitats worldwide, from intertidal areas to the deep sea. Sympatric Astropecten species (Astropecten aranciacus, Astropecten irregularis pentacanthus, Astropecten platyacanthus Astropecten jonstoni and Astropecten spinulosus) occur in the shallow coastal area of the Maresme coast (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). This study analyzes spatio-temporal differences in asteroidean population between the periods 2004-2006 and 2010-2011. Our results showed variations in density and spatial distribution in A. aranciacus, and a change in its diet between the two study periods. A. irregularis pentacanthus reduced its spatial distribution, concentrating in smaller areas. A. platyacanthus was absent in the first period but abundant in the second. A. jonstoni and A. spinulosus were scarce in the first period and absent in the second. The results also showed the specific habitat requirements for each sea star species with regard to sediment characteristics, prey availability and depth.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strengthening Community Capacity for Environmental Health Promotion through Photovoice. - Public health nursing (Boston, Mass.)
The study aims were to: (1) Identify health promoters'; perceptions of housing issues faced by farmworker families in an agricultural community, and (2) Strengthen community capacity to promote healthy and affordable housing.Photovoice was used to identify participants'; perceptions about farmworker housing. Thematic analysis was used to analyze participant interviews. Freudenberg's "Community Capacity for Environmental Health Promotion" framework was used to organize activities that contributed to strengthening community capacity. Purposive sampling was used to recruit six bilingual health promoters into the study.A demographic questionnaire was administered to characterize participants. An interview guide was used to inquire about housing conditions and the research process. A tracking tool was used to document capacity-building activities 2Â years post data collection.Housing issues faced by farmworker families included housing availability, poor conditions, and invisibility. All dimensions of community capacity were represented. Most occurred on an individual level.Health promoters identified housing issues and built community capacity to support farmworker housing. Nurses can support housing initiatives by assessing housing status, using data to support healthy housing, supporting health promoter programs in new service delivery models, and leading coalitions to address housing as a social determinant of health.Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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