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Molecular epidemiology, risk factors and hematochemical alterations induced by Theileria annulata in bovines of Punjab (India). - Acta parasitologica / Witold StefanÌski Institute of Parasitology, Warszawa, Poland
Bovine tropical theileriosis, caused by Theileria annulata, is one of the economically important fatal tick borne haemoprotozoan diseases of dairy animals. The aim of present investigation was to map the distribution of T. annulata in bovines of Punjab state of India in relation to various risk factors including age, sex of animals, location and management of farms. In a cross sectional study, a total of 1278 blood samples were randomly collected from twenty districts falling in five major agro-climatic zones of Punjab. All the samples were screened by blood smear examination followed by polymerase chain reaction targeting SSU rRNA gene for Theileria spp. PCR positive samples (n = 386) for Theileria spp. were then analyzed for T. annulata by amplification of Tams1 gene. Overall prevalence of T. annulata was found to be 29.26% in Punjab, with highest in western Zone (40.49%, 95% CI = 35.57-45.41) and lowest in submountain zone (18.90%, 95% CI = 13.73-24.06). The propensity of incidence of T. annulata was found to be highest in cross bred cattle (32.40%, 95% CI = 29.87-34.94), followed by indigenous cattle (19.64%, 95% CI = 10.67-28.61) and buffaloes (19.2%, 95% CI = 14.99-23.41). Between the two sexes, incidence of T. annulata was higher in female animals. Calves less than 6 months of age were found to be more prone to theileriosis.
Detection and assessment of risk factors associated with natural concurrent infection of Trypanosoma evansi and Anaplasma marginale in dairy animals by duplex PCR in eastern Punjab. - Tropical animal health and production
Duplex PCR consisting of two primer sets within a single mixture for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Trypanosoma evansi was standardized and employed on 219 blood samples collected from cattle (165) and buffaloes (54) from eastern Punjab to evaluate the status of concurrent infection and associated risk factors. The reaction produced 257- and 407-bp amplification products targeting repetitive nucleotide sequence of T. evansi and msp1Î² gene of A. marginale, respectively. The nucleotide sequence analysis of individual amplicons expressed the fidelity of the primer pairs used; duplex PCR was 100% sensitive and 92.66 % specific with conventional microscopy for the detection of mixed infections. Among the agro-climatic zones of interest, undulating zone was at higher risk of T. evansi infection (odds ratio (OR)â€‰=â€‰1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI)â€‰=â€‰0.94-3.27), and submountain zone (ORâ€‰=â€‰1.89, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰1.11-3.33) for A. marginale. For the concurrent infection, the relative risk among the two zones was almost unity. The cross-bred cattle population was at the highest risk of infection, may it be solo infection of T. evansi (ORâ€‰=â€‰âˆž, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰1.18-âˆž)/A. marginale (ORâ€‰=â€‰6.39, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰1.14-125.3) or dual infection (ORâ€‰=â€‰âˆž, 95% CIâ€‰=â€‰0.39-âˆž) of both as the indigenous cattle are resistant to the infection. Cross-bred cattle were at approximately three times the risk than buffaloes. For the dual infection, the cattle calves were at about 2.5 times higher risk than buffalo calves. Results indicate the endemic status of these infections in the region and mark out the commodities at great risk and requiring better surveillance.
Prevalence and morphological characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus from north India. - Journal of parasitic diseases : official organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence and to analyze morphological characteristics from hydatid cysts to test their suitability for strain identification. In the present study, 4,130 animals, including 278 cattle, 298 buffaloes, 760 sheep, 2,439 goat and 355 pigs were examined for the presence of hydatid cysts on post-mortem inspection at different slaughter houses/shops in northern India. Morphological characteristics from hydatid cysts were analyzed to test their suitability for strain identification. For statistical analysis, five variables were considered: number of hooks per rostellum, blade length of large and small hooks, and total length of large and small hooks. Principal component analysis was applied for analysis of morphological parameters. Out of a total of 4,130 animals examined, 66 were positive for hydatid cysts (prevalence 1.598Â %). The prevalence of hydatid cysts was highest in cattle (5.39Â %) followed by buffaloes (4.36Â %), pigs (3.09Â %), sheep (2.23Â %) and goat (.41Â %). The results indicate significant prevalence of hydatidosis in all the food producing animals and further that morphological analysis can also be used as a valid criterion for differentiation of different strains of E. granulosus particularly in developing countries where molecular studies could not be performed due to lack of infrastructure or financial constraints.
Pathological studies on experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in Swiss albino mice. - Journal of parasitic diseases : official organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
The pathology of Trypanosoma evansi infection was studied in Swiss albino mice using cattle isolate of the parasite. Sixteen Swiss albino mice were used in the experiment and were divided into two groups viz. infected group (I) and uninfected healthy control group (II) comprising 12 and four mice, respectively. Twelve mice from group I were infected with 1Â Ã—Â 10(5)Â purified trypanosomes. Systematic necropsy examination specifically of the infected mice (group I) as well as of healthy control (group II) was performed and pathological changes were recorded. The different tissue samples were collected in 10Â % neutral buffered formal saline and were used to study the histopathological changes. Gross post-mortem examination revealed enlargement of spleen, petechial haemorrhages in liver in the terminal stages of disease. Tissue sections revealed presence of numerous trypanosomes in blood vessels of liver, spleen, brain and kidneys. Microscopically, liver revealed lesions varying from vacuolar degeneration, coagulative necrosis along with congestion and haemorrhages. Spleen showed extensive haemorrhages in red pulp area, haemosiderosis and aggregation of histiocytes resulting in multinuclear giant cell formation. Lungs revealed oedema, congestion and mild inflammatory changes. Brain revealed mild degenerative changes along with congestion of meningeal blood vessels. Kidneys showed tubular degeneration, congestion and cellular infiltration. Heart revealed mild degenerative changes along with interstitial oedema. All changes were consistent with trypanosome infection and were confirmed by presence of trypanosomes in most of the tissue sections examined.
Prevalence and haemato-biochemical profile of Anaplasma marginale infection in dairy animals of Punjab (India). - Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine
To do the systematic comparison of prevalence of anaplasmosis by PCR and Giemsa stained thin blood smear (GSTBS) based parasitological assays in dairy cattle of Punjab, which has not been reported yet. To analyse the haematobiochemical alterations in infected animals to arrive at the conclusion regarding the pathogenicity induced by Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale) in latent and patent infection.Study was conducted on 320 animals (236 cows, 62 calves and 22 buffaloes) of Punjab, India. PCR on genome of A. marginale was performed by targeting msp1 Î² gene using specific primers BAP-2/AL34S, amplifies products of size 407 bp. Questionnaires based data on the characteristics of the infected animals and management strategies of the farm were collected and correlated.Higher prevalence and more significant association was observed in the PCR based molecular diagnosis (P=0.00012) as compared to that in GSTBS (P=0.028 8) based diagnosis with various regions under study. With respect to the regions, highest prevalence was recorded in Ferozepur by PCR based diagnosis, while that in Jalandhar by GSTBS examination. Similar marked significant association of the PCR based diagnosis with the age of the animals under study (P=0.00013) was observed elucidating no inverse age resistance to A. marginale in cow calves. Haematobiochemical profile of infected animals revealed marked anemia, liver dysfunction and increase globulin concentrate indicating rise in immunoglobulin level to counteract infection.PCR is far more sensitive in detecting the disease even in latent infection which may act as nidus for spread of anaplasmosis to susceptible animals in endemic areas. Severity of anaemia and liver dysfunction were comparable both in patent as well as latent infection indicating pathogenicity of both.Copyright Â© 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Molecular epidemiology of Echinococcosis from food producing animals in north India. - Veterinary parasitology
Echinococcosis is an important medical, veterinary and economic concern in India. Ten cysts were randomly selected from each intermediate host species (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and pigs). Either the germinal layer (sterile cysts) or protoscoleces (fertile cysts) were collected for molecular characterization. A 434 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1 gene was amplified using PCR from each isolate. Ten representative samples (2 from each intermediate host species) were sequenced in both the directions from which readable sequences were obtained from nine for phylogenetic analysis (NCBI, Blast). Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that seven (77.7%) isolates, from cattle (2), pigs (2), buffaloes (1) and goat (2) were clustered with the Indian Buffalo (G3) strain of Echinococcus granulosus, while two (22.2%) isolates from sheep were clustered with the sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene revealed that the buffalo strain (G3) and common sheep strain (G1) are cycling among livestock in north India and that these strains are highly adapted to cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and pigs.Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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