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Dr. Ritu  Mukerji-Metzger  Md image

Dr. Ritu Mukerji-Metzger Md

97 San Marin Dr
Novato CA 94945
415 997-7400
Medical School: Jefferson Medical College Of Thomas Jefferson University - 2002
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: A85339
NPI: 1023156023
Taxonomy Codes:
207R00000X

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Publications

Antibacterial Efficacy of Tender Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L) on Streptococcus mutans: An In-Vitro Study. - Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
The antibacterial property of coconut, the presence of lauric acid, and the ability to extract antimicrobial peptides Cn-AMP (1, 2, and 3) from tender coconut water has drawn attention on its effectiveness in normal consumption. An in-vitro experimental study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of tender coconut water in its natural state on Streptococcus mutans.Fresh tender coconut water and pasteurized tender coconut water were taken as test samples, dimethyl formamide was used as the negative control, and 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. Pure strain of S. mutans (MTCC 890) was used for determining the antibacterial effects. The test samples along with the controls were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test procedure and the zone of inhibition was examined. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to check for any significant differences in the antibacterial efficacy between the samples.There was no zone of inhibition with the tender coconut water, fresh and pasteurised, and negative control (dimethyl formamide). Zone of inhibition was seen in positive control (0.2% Chlorhexidine).No antimicrobial activity was demonstrated with tender coconut water in its normal state (in vitro).
Nutritional composition of Stevia rebaudiana, a sweet herb, and its hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect on patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. - Journal of the science of food and agriculture
The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. India shelters the highest number of diabetics and is thus known as the 'Diabetes Capital of the World'. The chemical management of diabetes has side effects and hence the present study was undertaken to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect of Stevia rebaudiana in patients with type 2 diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Its nutritional composition and use as a sweetener substitute were also assessed.Chemical analysis of dried Stevia leaf powder revealed it to be a nutritious herb with a good iron and fibre content. Intervention trials in diabetics revealed that it significantly lowered fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels. The serum triglycerides and VLDL-C levels were also significantly reduced.Hence it can be said that Stevia can safely be used as an anti-diabetic herb, as a sweetener substitute and may help to prevent cardiovascular diseases in patients with long-standing diabetes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.© 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Three-dimensional facial analyses of Indian and Malaysian women. - Contemporary clinical dentistry
Facial measurements serve as a valuable tool in the treatment planning of maxillofacial rehabilitation, orthodontic treatment, and orthognathic surgeries. The esthetic guidelines of face are still based on neoclassical canons, which were used in the ancient art. These canons are considered to be highly subjective, and there is ample evidence in the literature, which raises such questions as whether or not these canons can be applied for the modern population.This study was carried out to analyze the facial features of Indian and Malaysian women by using three-dimensional (3D) scanner and thus determine the prevalence of neoclassical facial esthetic canons in both the groups.The study was carried out on 60 women in the age range of 18-25 years, out of whom 30 were Indian and 30 Malaysian. As many as 16 facial measurements were taken by using a noncontact 3D scanner.Unpaired t-test was used for comparison of facial measurements between Indian and Malaysian females. Two-tailed Fisher exact test was used to determine the prevalence of neoclassical canons.Orbital Canon was prevalent in 80% of Malaysian women; the same was found only in 16% of Indian women (P = 0.00013). About 43% of Malaysian women exhibited orbitonasal canon (P = 0.0470) whereas nasoaural canon was prevalent in 73% of Malaysian and 33% of Indian women (P = 0.0068).Orbital, orbitonasal, and nasoaural canon were more prevalent in Malaysian women. Facial profile canon, nasooral, and nasofacial canons were not seen in either group. Though some canons provide guidelines in esthetic analyses of face, complete reliance on these canons is not justifiable.
Substrate utilization of stress tolerant methylotrophs isolated from revegetated heavy metal polluted coalmine spoil. - World journal of microbiology & biotechnology
We analyzed methylotrophs in Bina natural vegetation (BNV), and revegetated overburden dump of four (ROBD4) and 12 years (ROBD12), at Bina coal mine in Sonbhadra district. The cultured strains identified as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Cellvibrio (γ-Proteobacteria), Methylophilus, Ralstonia, Burkholderia (α-Proteobacteria) Methylobacterium and Inquilinus (β-Proteobacteria), Bacillus (Firmicutes) and Flexibacter (Sphingobacteria) in their 16s rRNA gene sequence similarity. The strains differed in citrate, lactose, formate, urea and xylose utilization. Methanol utilization by Stenotrophomonas, Inquilinus, Cellvibrio and Flexibacter is for first time. The preferred N- sources were proline, glutamate and nitrate for most of the strains. All strains tolerated (2.5 % NaCl) and SDS (0.2 %); 16 strains survived in crystal violet (0.01 %) and nine strains in sodium azide (0.02 %. Methylotrophic population trend was BNV > ROBD12 > ROBD4. The presence of majority of strain of BNV at ROBD12 and ROBD4 indicated restoration of soil methylotrophic functional diversity in revegetated dumps.
Defluoridation studies using laterite material. - Journal of environmental science & engineering
Defluoridation by adsorption process is well known technique. Though several established techniques are available, they are found to be expensive and labour intensive. Keeping this in view, a study is being done to remove excess fluoride in drinking water based on the concept of adsorption using locally available materials like laterite, sand and gravel. The studies were being conducted in a column with varying depths of laterite by keeping constant gravel depth. The flow is varied for all the depths and the results obtained were found to be quite encouraging as compared to some of the established costly techniques. This technique can be employed in rural areas and places where expensive techniques like electrolytic precipitation, etc. cannot be adopted.
Sex differences in the central nervous system actions of ethanol. - Critical reviews in neurobiology
For many years, researchers have avoided including females in their research because of the poorly understood influences of cycling hormones. However, we are becoming increasingly aware that sex matters, showing that it is important to conduct studies in females as well as males. This review will focus on the central nervous system (CNS) actions of alcohol (ethanol) because we have found significant sex differences in ethanol actions at the molecular as well as the behavioral level. Most recently, in our studies of ethanol dependence and withdrawal, we found that female rats displayed a shorter time for recovery from ethanol withdrawal, assessed by measuring seizure susceptibility. We now report that this finding was confirmed with a second convulsant agent. Moreover, GABAA receptor function was differentially altered in ethanol-withdrawn female compared to male rats. Studies by other investigators have reported additional significant sex differences in ethanol seeking and drinking behaviors and across several measures of ethanol dependence and withdrawal. We are gaining a better understanding of how the actions of ethanol in the CNS overlay sex differences in brain architecture and the hormonal milieu. Therefore, it is not surprising to observe sex-selective effects on cellular and behavioral outcomes from ethanol consumption. While current research is focused on characterizing sex differences in the actions of ethanol, it has not yet reached the point where we can integrate our findings into a unifying concept of how being female differentially regulates CNS responses to ethanol. This is likely a result of the complexity of ethanol actions, involving multiple neurotransmitter systems and responses covering the spectrum from drug seeking behaviors to neuropathological consequences of ethanol misuse. Regardless, the observed sex differences in ethanol withdrawal are noteworthy because they suggest that treatment of alcoholism should be managed differently in women than in men. Finally, it remains important to compare and contrast responses in males and females because recent studies of sex differences in basic physiology have made it clear that being female impacts health and disease.
Construction of synthetic immunogens: use of T- and B-cell epitopes of CS and RESA proteins of Plasmodium falciparum. - Vaccine
An invariant T-helper epitope of the sequence ENDIEKKICKMEKCSSVFNV (residue no. 376-395) from the circumsporozoite (CS) protein was coupled chemically with the repeat sequences, namely (EENV)2, EENVEHDA and DDEHVEEPTVA, of ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) protein of Plasmodium falciparum. The CS sequence was tested for helper and proliferative activity in five inbred strains of mice of different haplotypes. The CS peptide showed dose-dependent lymphocyte proliferative response in all the strains tested. On the other hand, no proliferative response was observed with the dimers of the three RESA repeat sequences. The antibody levels in these strains immunized with RESA-CS hybrid structures showed high titres and a booster effect during subsequent immunization. Such a phenomenon was not observed with RESA peptides alone. The above CS sequence could be an ideal T-helper epitope which can be linked to hydrophilic B-cell epitopes of the RESA sequence to overcome major histocompatibility complex restriction in the host.

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