47 New Scotland Ave
Albany NY 12208
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Prognostic significance of serial postoperative EEG in extratemporal lobe epilepsy surgery. - Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
To assess the prognostic value of postoperative EEG in patients surgically treated for drug-resistant extra-temporal lobe (ET) epilepsy.We studied 63 consecutive patients with ET epilepsy who underwent epilepsy surgery and were followed up for at least 2 years (mean duration of follow-up 6.2 Â± 2.3 years, range 2-12). Follow-up evaluations were performed 2, 12, and 24 months after surgery, and included standard EEG (at 2 months) and long-term video-EEG monitoring during both wakefulness and sleep (at 12 and 24 months). Seizure outcome was determined at each follow-up evaluation, and then at yearly intervals. Patients who were in Engel Class I at the last contact were classified as having a good outcome.Seizure outcome was good in 39 patients (62%). The presence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) in postoperative EEG at each time point was found to be associated with poor outcome. The strength of this association was greater for awake plus sleep recording as compared with awake recording alone. In a multiple regression model including all pre- and post-operative factors identified as predictors of outcome in univariate analysis, the presence of early (2 months after surgery) EEG epileptiform abnormalities was found to be independently associated with poor seizure outcome.Postoperative IED may predict long-term outcome in patients undergoing resective surgery for ET epilepsy.The increase in risk of unfavourable outcome associated with EEG epileptiform abnormalities detected as early as two months after surgery may have substantial practical importance. Serial postoperative EEGs including sleep recording may add further predictive power and help making decision about antiepileptic drug discontinuation.Copyright Â© 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Surgery after intracranial investigation with subdural electrodes in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy: outcome and complications. - Neurosurgical review
Video-EEG monitoring with intracranial subdural electrodes is a useful assessment tool for the localization of the epileptogenic zone in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. We aimed at assessing the morbidity related to electrode implantation and the surgical outcome in patients who underwent epilepsy surgery after intracranial EEG monitoring. All patients (Nâ€‰=â€‰58) admitted to our Epilepsy Surgery Centre for drug-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent resective surgery after intracranial monitoring with subdural electrodes and were followed up for at least 2 years were included in the study. Their mean age was 30.4 years (range 8-60 years), 25 (43 %) were female, and 44 (76 %) had a preoperatively detected structural lesion. The mean duration of invasive recording was 2.3 days (range 1-14 days). Extraoperative ECoG allowed the identification of the epileptogenic focus in all cases. The temporal lobe was involved in 21 (36 %) patients, whereas extratemporal foci were identified in 24 (41 %) patients. Thirteen patients (23 %) had multilobar involvement. Functional brain mapping was performed in 15 (26 %) patients. Transient complications related to electrode implantation occurred in three patients. Among patients with evidence of lesion on preoperative MRI, lesionectomy alone was performed in 12 cases (27 %), while it was combined with tailored cortical resection in the remaining cases. Tailored cortical resection was also performed in patients without evidence of lesion on MRI. After resective surgery, transient neurological deficits occurred in five cases, while another patient experienced permanent lateral homonymous hemianopia. At the last follow-up observation, 34 (57 %) patients were seizure-free (Engel class I). This study suggests that invasive EEG recording with subdural electrodes may be useful and fairly safe for many candidates for epilepsy surgery.
Seizure clusters and adverse events during pre-surgical video-EEG monitoring with a slow anti-epileptic drug (AED) taper. - Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
To evaluate the efficiency and safety of pre-surgical video-EEG monitoring with a slow anti-epileptic drug (AED) taper and a rescue benzodiazepine protocol.Fifty-four consecutive patients with refractory focal epilepsy who underwent pre-surgical video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring during the year 2010 were included in the study. Time to first seizure, duration of monitoring, incidence of 4-h and 24-h seizure clustering, secondarily generalised tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS), status epilepticus, falls and cardiac asystole were evaluated.A total of 190 seizures were recorded. Six (11%) patients had 4-h clusters and 21 (39%) patients had 24-h clusters. While 15 sGTCS were recorded in 14 patients (26%), status epilepticus did not occur and no seizure was complicated with cardiac asystole. Epileptic falls with no significant injuries occurred in three patients. The mean time to first seizure was 3.3days and the time to conclude video-EEG monitoring averaged 6days.Seizure clustering was common during pre-surgical video-EEG monitoring, although serious adverse events were rare with a slow AED tapering and a rescue benzodiazepine protocol.Slow AED taper pre-surgical video-EEG monitoring is fairly safe when performed in a highly specialised and supervised hospital setting.Copyright Â© 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Memory outcome 2 years after anterior temporal lobectomy in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. - Seizure
Memory decline is often observed after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), particularly in patients with dominant hemisphere resections. However, the follow-up length has been 1 year or less in most studies. Our aims were to examine postoperative memory changes over a longer period and to identify baseline demographic and clinical predictors of memory outcome.We administered material-specific memory tests at baseline, and 1 and 2 years after surgery to 82 consecutive right-handed patients (52% males) who underwent ATL for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (35 left, 47 right) after a non-invasive presurgical protocol. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) was used to examine the relationship between changes in memory tests scores over time and side of TLE and pathology. Also, standardized residual change scores were calculated for each memory test and entered in multiple linear regression models aimed at identifying baseline predictors of better memory outcome.RM-MANOVA revealed a significant change in memory test scores over time, with an interaction between time and side of surgery, as 2 years after surgery patients with RTLE were improved while patients with LTLE were not worse as compared with baseline. Pathology was not associated with changes in memory scores. In multiple regression analysis, significant associations were found between right TLE and greater improvement in verbal memory, younger age and greater improvement in visuospatial memory, and male gender and greater improvement in both verbal and visuospatial memory.Our results suggest that the long-term memory outcome of TLE patients undergoing ATL without invasive presurgical assessment may be good in most cases not only for right-sided but also for left-sided resections.
Factors associated with generic and disease-specific quality of life in temporal lobe epilepsy. - Epilepsy research
We aimed at further elucidating the association between quality of life (QOL) and sociodemographic factors, clinical seizure factors, depression and anxiety in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).We studied 106 consecutive adult right-handed patients (mean age 35.4 +/- 9.7; 50% males; IQ> or = 70) with drug-resistant unilateral (59% right) TLE (70% hippocampal sclerosis, 30% tumors or other lesions), who underwent a comprehensive non-invasive pre-surgical protocol. They completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). To measure QOL, we used both a generic instrument, the WHOQOL-100, and a disease-specific instrument, the 31-item quality of life in epilepsy (QOLIE-31). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between each QOL domain and age, gender, education, side of TLE, duration of epilepsy, seizure frequency, and level of depression and anxiety.Severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with lower scores across most QOL domains. Depression was consistently the strongest predictor of lower scores on almost all QOL domains. Also, severity of anxiety symptoms was significantly associated with lower scores across many QOL domains. Independent significant relationships between QOL and sociodemographic or clinical epilepsy variables were limited in number and strength.Our findings suggest that QOL in TLE might be substantially affected by the presence and severity of depressive symptoms and, to a lesser degree, of anxiety symptoms. While clinical seizure variables had a weaker association with QOL, the absence of seizure-free patients might have obscured a relation between seizure frequency and QOL. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the significance of patients' emotional state and of the role it plays for their QOL. Adopting a biopsychosocial approach might be useful to address patients' needs.
Hospital-based register of stroke in the Molise Region: focus on main subtypes of stroke. Years 2009-2013. - Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
We determined incidence and intra-hospital mortality rate of stroke in Molise, Italy, to provide information for planning regional healthcare facilities and to ameliorate stroke management in this region. This study is part of the "Rete Molisana dell'Ictus Cerebrale (REMOLIC)" study, a population-based Cerebrovascular Registry in Molise, from 2009 to 2013, with a cold pursuit approach. The crude annual incidence rates for total stroke per 100,000 inhabitants, notified by hospital discharge records, were 198 for 2009, 185 for 2010, 169 for 2011, and 176 for both 2012 and 2013. There was a significant decrease in risk in the years 2011-2013 [RR2011 vs. 2009: 0.85 (0.76-0.98), RR2012 vs. 2009: 0.89 (0.79-0.99), RR2013 vs. 2009: 0.89 (0.79-0.99)] as compared with 2009. For the year 2010, after adjustment to the Italian, European, and world populations, the overall incidence rates were 165, 134, and 67 per 100,000/year, respectively. Similar trends were found when men and women were analyzed separately. In the average, 20.8Â % of subjects admitted for a cerebrovascular accident died during the hospitalization, among these 93.5Â % in the first 28Â days. The duration of hospital stay was constant in the years (2009-2012), except during 2013, where there was a significant decrease in the average (pÂ <Â 0.001). Our study shows incidence rates decreasing from 2009 to 2013, while mortality rates were stable during the same years. This study underlines the need to plan better stroke management in Italy, in order to obtain outcomes more similar to those of the best performing countries.
Deep brain stimulation for intractabile epilepsy. - Journal of neurosurgical sciences
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently considered a promising neuromodulation therapy for refractory epilepsy not suitable for resective surgery. Several anatomical targets and different stimulation approaches have been proposed in order to obtain satisfactory seizures reduction. As expected, according with different patterns of neural pathways involvement, the efficacy of each anatomical target stimulation in reducing seizure frequency varies among the different epileptic syndromes.We reviewed the current literature on this topic to provide an overview of the clinical efficacy of the main stimulation targets (anterior nucleus of the thalamus [ANT], hippocampus formation [HF] and centromedian nucleus of the thalamus [CMT]) related to the different epileptic syndromes. We also summarized the available data concerning side effects, neuropsychological outcome, quality of life and future perspective of DBS in intractable epilepsy.Encouraging results were reported for each target stimulation. However, only in ANT and responsive neurostimulation (RNS) the efficacy and safety were tested on large series of patients and achieving class I evidence level.We concluded that responsive stimulation could be more appropriate in focal epilepsy, while ANT stimulation could be properly performed also in multifocal seizures with predominant limbic involvement. Despite the small samples size, HF stimulation reduces seizure frequency in (bi) temporal lobe epilepsy, as well as CMT stimulation is able to reduce, seizure frequency, in generalized epilepsy.
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