4201 Tudor Centre Dr Suite 320
Anchorage AK 99508
Medical School: Other - Unknown
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License #: AK768
Taxonomy Codes:122300000X 1223P0221X
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Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis vaccination coverage before, during, and after pregnancy - 16 States and new york city, 2011. - MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) recommended 1 dose of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy for women who had not received Tdap previously. Before 2011, Tdap was recommended for unvaccinated women either before pregnancy or postpartum. In October 2012, ACIP expanded the 2011 recommendation, advising pregnant women to be vaccinated with Tdap during each pregnancy to provide maternal antibodies for each infant. The optimal time for vaccination is at 27-36 weeks' gestation as recommended by ACIP. In response to ACIP's Tdap recommendation for pregnant women in 2011, CDC added a supplemental question to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey to determine women's Tdap vaccination status before, during, or after their most recent delivery. This report describes overall and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage around the time of pregnancy using data from 6,852 sampled women who delivered a live-born infant during September-December 2011 in one of 16 states or New York City (NYC). Among the 17 jurisdictions, the median percentage of women with live births who reported any Tdap vaccination was 55.7%, ranging from 38.2% in NYC to 76.6% in Nebraska. The median percentage who received Tdap before pregnancy was 13.9% (rangeÂ =Â 7.7%-20.1%), during pregnancy was 9.8% (rangeÂ =Â 3.8%-14.2%), and after delivery was 30.9% (rangeÂ =Â 13.6%-46.5%). The PRAMS data indicate a wide variation in Tdap vaccination coverage among demographic groups, with generally higher postpartum coverage for non-Hispanic white women, those who started prenatal care in the first trimester, and those who had private health insurance coverage. This information can be used for promoting evidence-based strategies to communicate the importance of ACIP guidelines related to Tdap vaccination coverage to women and their prenatal care providers.
Influenza vaccination coverage of Vaccine for Children (VFC)-entitled versus privately insured children, United States, 2011-2013. - Vaccine
The Vaccines for Children (VFC) program provides vaccines at no cost to children who are Medicaid-eligible, uninsured, American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN), or underinsured and vaccinated at Federally Qualified Health Centers or Rural Health Clinics. The objective of this study was to compare influenza vaccination coverage of VFC-entitled to privately insured children in the United States, nationally, by state, and by selected socio-demographic variables.Data from the National Immunization Survey-Flu (NIS-Flu) surveys were analyzed for the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 influenza seasons for households with children 6 months-17 years. VFC-entitlement and private insurance status were defined based upon questions asked of the parent during the telephone interview. Influenza vaccination coverage estimates of children VFC-entitled versus privately insured were compared by t-tests, both nationally and within state, and within selected socio-demographic variables.For both seasons studied, influenza coverage for VFC-entitled children did not significantly differ from coverage for privately insured children (2011-2012: 52.0%Â±1.9% versus 50.7%Â±1.2%; 2012-2013: 56.0%Â±1.6% versus 57.2%Â±1.2%). Among VFC-entitled children, uninsured children had lower coverage (2011-2012: 38.9%Â±4.7%; 2012-2013: 44.8%Â±3.5%) than Medicaid-eligible (2011-2012: 55.2%Â±2.1%; 2012-2013: 58.6%Â±1.9%) and AI/AN children (2011-2012: 54.4%Â±11.3%; 2012-2013: 54.6%Â±7.0%). Significant differences in vaccination coverage among VFC-entitled and privately insured children were observed within some subgroups of race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and living in a metropolitan statistical area principle city.Although finding few differences in influenza vaccination coverage among VFC-entitled versus privately insured children was encouraging, nearly half of all children were not vaccinated for influenza and coverage was particularly low among uninsured children. Additional public health interventions are needed to ensure that more children are vaccinated such as a strong recommendation from health care providers, utilization of immunization information systems, provider reminders, standing orders, and community-based interventions such as educational activities and expanded access to vaccination services.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blast Injury in the Spine: Dynamic Response Index Is Not an Appropriate Model for Predicting Injury. - Clinical orthopaedics and related research
Improvised explosive devices are a common feature of recent asymmetric conflicts and there is a persistent landmine threat to military and humanitarian personnel. Assessment of injury risk to the spine in vehicles subjected to explosions was conducted using a standardized model, the Dynamic Response Index (DRI). However, the DRI was intended for evaluating aircraft ejection seats and has not been validated in blast conditions.We asked whether the injury patterns seen in blast are similar to those in aircraft ejection and therefore whether a single injury prediction model can be used for both situations.UK military victims of mounted blast (seated in a vehicle) were identified from the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. Each had their initial CT scans reviewed to identify spinal fractures. A literature search identified a comparison population of ejected aircrew with spinal fractures. Seventy-eight blast victims were identified with 294 fractures. One hundred eighty-nine patients who had sustained aircraft ejection were identified with 258 fractures. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the population injury distributions and Fisher's exact test was used to assess differences at each spinal level.The distribution of injuries between blast and ejection was not similar. In the cervical spine, the relative risk of injury was 11.5 times higher in blast; in the lumbar spine the relative risk was 2.9 times higher in blast. In the thoracic spine, the relative risk was identical in blast and ejection. At most individual vertebral levels including the upper thoracic spine, there was a higher risk of injury in the blast population, but the opposite was true between T7 and T12, where the risk was higher in aircraft ejection.The patterns of injury in blast and aircraft are different, suggesting that the two are mechanistically dissimilar. At most vertebral levels there is a higher relative risk of fracture in the blast population, but at the apex of the thoracic spine and in the lower thoracic spine, there is a higher risk in ejection victims. The differences in relative risk at different levels, and the resulting overall different injury patterns, suggest that a single model cannot be used to predict the risk of injury in ejection and blast.A new model needs to be developed to aid in the design of mine-protected vehicles for future conflicts.
Hepatitis B vaccination among adolescents 13-17 years, United States, 2006-2012. - Vaccine
Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. Routine HepB vaccination was recommended for infants in 1991 and catch-up vaccination has been recommended for adolescents since in 1995. The purpose of this study is to assess HepB vaccination among adolescents 13-17 years.The 2006-2012 NIS-Teen were analyzed. Vaccination trends and coverage by birth cohort among adolescents were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal models are used to identify factors independently associated with HepB vaccination.HepB vaccination coverage increased from 81.3% in 2006 to 92.8% in 2012. Coverage varied by birth cohort and 79-83% received vaccination before 2 years of age for those who were born during 1995 and 1999. Among those who had not received vaccination by 11 years of age, for the 1993-1995 birth cohorts, 9-15% were vaccinated during ages 11-12 years, and 27-37% had been vaccinated through age 16 years. Coverage among adolescents 13-17 years in 2012 ranged by state from 84.4% in West Virginia to 98.7% in Florida (median 93.3%). Characteristics independently associated with a higher likelihood of HepB vaccination included living more than 5 times above poverty level, living in Northeastern or Southern region of the United States, and having a mixed facility as their vaccination provider. Those with a hospital listed as their vaccination provider and those who did not have a well-child visit at age 11-12 years were independently associated with a lower likelihood of HepB vaccination.Efforts focused on groups with lower coverage may reduce disparities in coverage and prevent hepatitis B infection. Parents and providers should routinely review adolescent immunizations. Routine reminder/recall, expanded access in health care settings, and standing order programs should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adolescents.Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Estimated influenza illnesses and hospitalizations averted by vaccination--United States, 2013-14 influenza season. - MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged â‰¥6 months to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by influenza in the United States. CDC previously developed a model to estimate that annual influenza vaccination resulted in 1.1-6.6 million fewer cases and 7,700-79,000 fewer hospitalizations per season during the 2005-2013 influenza seasons. For the 2013-14 influenza season, using updated estimates of vaccination coverage, vaccine effectiveness, and influenza hospitalizations, CDC estimates that influenza vaccination prevented approximately 7.2 million illnesses, 3.1 million medically attended illnesses, and 90,000 hospitalizations associated with influenza. Similar to prior seasons, fewer than half of persons aged â‰¥6 months are estimated to have been vaccinated. If influenza vaccination levels had reached the Healthy People 2020 target of 70%, an estimated additional 5.9 million illnesses, 2.3 million medically attended illnesses, and 42,000 hospitalizations associated with influenza might have been averted. For the nation to more fully benefit from influenza vaccines, more effort is needed to reach the Healthy People 2020 target.
Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year. - MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children.
Trends in childhood influenza vaccination coverage--U.S., 2004-2012. - Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974)
We compared estimates of childhood influenza vaccination coverage by health status, age, and racial/ethnic group across eight consecutive influenza seasons (2004 through 2012) based on two survey systems to assess trends in childhood influenza vaccination coverage in the U.S.We used National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and National Immunization Survey-Flu (NIS-Flu) data to estimate receipt of at least one dose of influenza vaccination among children aged 6 months to 17 years based on parental report. We computed estimates using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis methods.Based on the NHIS, overall influenza vaccination coverage with at least one dose of influenza vaccine among children increased from 16.2% during the 2004-2005 influenza season to 47.1% during the 2011-2012 influenza season. Children with health conditions that put them at high risk for complications from influenza had higher influenza vaccination coverage than children without these health conditions for all the seasons studied. In seven of the eight seasons studied, there were no significant differences in influenza vaccination coverage between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white children. Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for children were slightly higher based on NIS-Flu data compared with NHIS data for the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 influenza seasons (4.1 and 4.4 percentage points higher, respectively); both NIS-Flu and NHIS estimates had similar patterns of decreasing vaccination coverage with increasing age.Although influenza vaccination coverage among children continued to increase, by the 2011-2012 influenza season, only slightly less than half of U.S. children were vaccinated against influenza. Much improvement is needed to ensure all children aged â‰¥ 6 months are vaccinated annually against influenza.
Disparities in influenza vaccination coverage among women with live-born infants: PRAMS surveillance during the 2009-2010 influenza season. - Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974)
Vaccination during pregnancy significantly reduces the risk of influenza illness among pregnant women and their infants up to 6 months of age; however, many women do not get vaccinated. We examined disparities in vaccination coverage among women who delivered a live-born infant during the 2009-2010 influenza season, when two separate influenza vaccinations were recommended.Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data from 29 states and New York City, collected during the 2009-2010 influenza season, were used to examine uptake of seasonal (unweighted n=27,153) and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) (n=27,372) vaccination by racially/ethnically diverse women who delivered a live-born infant from September 1, 2009, through May 31, 2010.PRAMS data showed variation in seasonal and pH1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among women with live-born infants by racial/ethnic group. For seasonal influenza vaccination, coverage was 50.5% for non-Hispanic white, 30.2% for non-Hispanic black, 42.1% for Hispanic, and 48.2% for non-Hispanic other women. For pH1N1, vaccination coverage was 41.4% for non-Hispanic white, 25.5% for non-Hispanic black, 41.1% for Hispanic, and 43.3% for non-Hispanic other women. Compared with non-Hispanic white women, non-Hispanic black women had lower seasonal (crude prevalence ratio [cPR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55, 0.64) and pH1N1 (cPR=0.62, 95% CI 0.57, 0.67) vaccination coverage; these disparities diminished but remained after adjusting for provider recommendation or offer for influenza vaccination, insurance status, and demographic factors (seasonal vaccine: adjusted PR [aPR] = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74, 0.86; and pH1N1 vaccine: aPR=0.75, 95% CI 0.68, 0.82).To reduce disparities in influenza vaccination uptake by pregnant women, targeted efforts toward providers and interventions focusing on pregnant and postpartum women may be needed.
National, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months - United States, 2013. - MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
In the United States, among children born during 1994-2013, vaccination will prevent an estimated 322 million illnesses, 21 million hospitalizations, and 732,000 deaths during their lifetimes. Since 1994, the National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. This report describes national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born January 2010-May 2012, based on results from the 2013 NIS. In 2013, vaccination coverage achieved the 90% national Healthy People 2020 target for â‰¥ 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.9%); â‰¥ 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90.8%); â‰¥ 3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); and â‰¥ 1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.2%). Coverage was below the Healthy People 2020 targets for â‰¥ 4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (83.1%; target 90%); â‰¥ 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (82.0%; target 90%); the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib) (82.0%; target 90%); â‰¥ 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) (54.7%; target 85%); rotavirus vaccine (72.6%; target 80%); and the HepB birth dose (74.2%; target 85%). Coverage remained stable relative to 2012 for all of the vaccinations with Healthy People 2020 objectives except for increases in the HepB birth dose (by 2.6 percentage points) and rotavirus vaccination (by 4.0 percentage points). The percentage of children who received no vaccinations remained below 1.0% (0.7%). Children living below the federal poverty level had lower vaccination coverage compared with children living at or above the poverty level for many vaccines, with the largest disparities for â‰¥ 4 doses of DTaP (by 8.2 percentage points), full series of Hib (by 9.5 percentage points), â‰¥ 4 doses of PCV (by 11.6 percentage points), and rotavirus (by 12.6 percentage points). MMR coverage was below 90% for 17 states. Reaching and maintaining high coverage across states and socioeconomic groups is needed to prevent resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases.
National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years--United States, 2013. - MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive 1 dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 2 doses of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.* ACIP also recommends administration of "catch-up"â€ vaccinations, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), hepatitis B, and varicella, and, for all persons aged â‰¥6 months, an annual influenza vaccination. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).Â§ This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which show that from 2012 to 2013, coverage increased for each of the vaccines routinely recommended for adolescents: from 84.6% to 86.0% for â‰¥1 Tdap dose; from 74.0% to 77.8% for â‰¥1 MenACWY dose; from 53.8% to 57.3% for â‰¥1 HPV dose among females, and from 20.8% to 34.6% for â‰¥1 HPV dose among males. Coverage varied by state and local jurisdictions and by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region. Healthy People 2020 vaccination targets for adolescents aged 13-15 years were reached in 42 states for â‰¥1 Tdap dose, 18 for â‰¥1 MenACWY dose, and 11 for â‰¥2 varicella doses. No state met the target for â‰¥3 HPV doses.Â¶ Use of patient reminder and recall systems, immunization information systems, coverage assessment and feedback to clinicians, clinician reminders, standing orders, and other interventions can help make use of every health care visit to ensure that adolescents are fully protected from vaccine-preventable infections and cancers (5), especially when such interventions are coupled with clinicians' vaccination recommendations.
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