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Dr. Fred  Grunseid  Md image

Dr. Fred Grunseid Md

1687 Ralph Ave
Brooklyn NY 11236
718 517-7191
Medical School: Mount Sinai School Of Medicine Of City University Of New York - 1984
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: 166169
NPI: 1023036613
Taxonomy Codes:
207R00000X

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Awards & Recognitions

About Us

Practice Philosophy

Conditions

Dr. Fred Grunseid is associated with these group practices

Procedure Pricing

HCPCS Code Description Average Price Average Price
Allowed By Medicare
HCPCS Code:99284 Description:Emergency dept visit Average Price:$138.81 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$116.88
HCPCS Code:G0179 Description:MD recertification HHA PT Average Price:$68.46 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$46.66
HCPCS Code:85651 Description:Rbc sed rate nonautomated Average Price:$21.98 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$5.02
HCPCS Code:99233 Description:Subsequent hospital care Average Price:$120.02 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$110.01
HCPCS Code:99232 Description:Subsequent hospital care Average Price:$84.85 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$76.71
HCPCS Code:93000 Description:Electrocardiogram complete Average Price:$28.33 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$22.09
HCPCS Code:99239 Description:Hospital discharge day Average Price:$119.62 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$114.16
HCPCS Code:71020 Description:Chest x-ray Average Price:$41.31 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$36.12
HCPCS Code:99204 Description:Office/outpatient visit new Average Price:$186.17 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$181.20
HCPCS Code:71010 Description:Chest x-ray Average Price:$31.75 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$27.75
HCPCS Code:Q2038 Description:Fluzone vacc, 3 yrs & >, im Average Price:$15.17 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$12.34
HCPCS Code:99214 Description:Office/outpatient visit est Average Price:$119.30 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$117.50
HCPCS Code:99213 Description:Office/outpatient visit est Average Price:$80.78 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$79.75
HCPCS Code:99212 Description:Office/outpatient visit est Average Price:$49.39 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$48.73
HCPCS Code:82747 Description:Assay of folic acid rbc Average Price:$16.56 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$16.38
HCPCS Code:82607 Description:Vitamin B-12 Average Price:$21.37 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$21.21
HCPCS Code:87804 Description:Influenza assay w/optic Average Price:$12.53 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$12.39
HCPCS Code:84439 Description:Assay of free thyroxine Average Price:$12.81 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$12.69
HCPCS Code:85025 Description:Complete cbc w/auto diff wbc Average Price:$11.03 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$10.94
HCPCS Code:96372 Description:Ther/proph/diag inj sc/im Average Price:$28.10 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$28.01
HCPCS Code:84481 Description:Free assay (FT-3) Average Price:$23.90 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$23.84
HCPCS Code:82272 Description:Occult bld feces 1-3 tests Average Price:$4.64 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$4.58
HCPCS Code:82728 Description:Assay of ferritin Average Price:$19.20 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$19.17
HCPCS Code:84443 Description:Assay thyroid stim hormone Average Price:$23.66 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$23.64
HCPCS Code:83036 Description:Glycosylated hemoglobin test Average Price:$13.68 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$13.66
HCPCS Code:81000 Description:Urinalysis nonauto w/scope Average Price:$4.44 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$4.43
HCPCS Code:36415 Description:Routine venipuncture Average Price:$3.01 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$3.00
HCPCS Code:84153 Description:Assay of psa total Average Price:$25.89 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$25.89
HCPCS Code:86003 Description:Allergen specific IgE Average Price:$6.98 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$6.98
HCPCS Code:86403 Description:Particle agglutination test Average Price:$14.24 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$14.24
HCPCS Code:90662 Description:Flu vacc prsv free inc antig Average Price:$30.75 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$30.75
HCPCS Code:90732 Description:Pneumococcal vaccine Average Price:$32.70 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$32.70
HCPCS Code:G0008 Description:Admin influenza virus vac Average Price:$26.54 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$26.54
HCPCS Code:G0009 Description:Admin pneumococcal vaccine Average Price:$25.96 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$25.96
HCPCS Code:J3420 Description:Vitamin b12 injection Average Price:$0.30 Average Price Allowed
By Medicare:
$0.30

HCPCS Code Definitions

71010
Radiologic examination, chest; single view, frontal
71020
Radiologic examination, chest, 2 views, frontal and lateral
93000
Electrocardiogram, routine ECG with at least 12 leads; with interpretation and report
96372
Therapeutic, prophylactic, or diagnostic injection (specify substance or drug); subcutaneous or intramuscular
99204
Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of a new patient, which requires these 3 key components: A comprehensive history; A comprehensive examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 45 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
99212
Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A problem focused history; A problem focused examination; Straightforward medical decision making. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are self limited or minor. Typically, 10 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
99213
Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of low complexity. Counseling and coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of low to moderate severity. Typically, 15 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
99214
Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A detailed history; A detailed examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of moderate to high severity. Typically, 25 minutes are spent face-to-face with the patient and/or family.
99232
Subsequent hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: An expanded problem focused interval history; An expanded problem focused examination; Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the patient is responding inadequately to therapy or has developed a minor complication. Typically, 25 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
99233
Subsequent hospital care, per day, for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires at least 2 of these 3 key components: A detailed interval history; A detailed examination; Medical decision making of high complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the patient is unstable or has developed a significant complication or a significant new problem. Typically, 35 minutes are spent at the bedside and on the patient's hospital floor or unit.
99239
Hospital discharge day management; more than 30 minutes
99284
Emergency department visit for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires these 3 key components: A detailed history; A detailed examination; and Medical decision making of moderate complexity. Counseling and/or coordination of care with other physicians, other qualified health care professionals, or agencies are provided consistent with the nature of the problem(s) and the patient's and/or family's needs. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are of high severity, and require urgent evaluation by the physician physicians, or other qualified health care professionals but do not pose an immediate significant threat to life or physiologic function.
G0008
Administration of influenza virus vaccine
G0009
Administration of pneumococcal vaccine
G0179
Physician re-certification for medicare-covered home health services under a home health plan of care (patient not present), including contacts with home health agency and review of reports of patient status required by physicians to affirm the initial implementation of the plan of care that meets patient's needs, per re-certification period
J3420
Injection, vitamin b-12 cyanocobalamin, up to 1000 mcg
Q2038
Influenza virus vaccine, split virus, when administered to individuals 3 years of age and older, for intramuscular use (fluzone)

Medical Malpractice Cases

None Found

Medical Board Sanctions

None Found

Referrals

NPI
Doctor Name
Specialty
Count
1699793034
Internal Medicine
5,561
1760413470
Diagnostic Radiology
3,217
1841414216
Nephrology
1,231
1447349824
Internal Medicine
786
1043241276
Hematology/Oncology
745
1871571679
General Surgery
687
1124195292
Orthopedic Surgery
686
1689637811
Gastroenterology
665
1093711467
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
651
1427000256
Cardiovascular Disease (Cardiology)
613
*These referrals represent the top 10 that Dr. Grunseid has made to other doctors

Publications

Screening rice cultivars for resistance to bacterial leaf blight. - Journal of microbiology and biotechnology
Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious threats to rice production. In this study, screening of rice for resistance to BLB was carried out at two different times and locations, i.e., in a greenhouse during winter and in an open field during summer. Pathogenicity of Xoo race K1 tested on 32 Korean rice cultivars. Inoculation conducted at the maximum tillering stage, and lesion length measured after 14 d of inoculation. Five cultivars i.e., Hanareum, Namcheon, Samgdeok, Samgang, and Yangjo found to be resistant in both the greenhouse and open-field screenings. Expression of plant defense-related genes i.e., JAmyb, OsNPR1, OsPR1a, OsWRKY45, and OsPR10b observed in resistant and susceptible cultivars by qRT-PCR. Among the five genes tested, only OsPR10b showed coherent expression with the phenotypes. Screening of resistance to Xoo in rice is more accurate when conducted in open fields in the summer cultivation period rather than in greenhouses in winter. The expression of plant defense related genes after bacterial inoculation could give another perspective in elucidating defense mechanisms by using both resistant and susceptible individuals.
Pharmacokinetics and Dosing of Levofloxacin in Children Treated for Active or Latent Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis, Federated States of Micronesia and Republic of the Marshall Islands. - The Pediatric infectious disease journal
In the Federated States of Micronesia and then the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), levofloxacin pharmacokinetics were studied in children receiving directly observed once-daily regimens (10 mg/kg, age >5 years; 15-20 mg/kg, age ≤5 years) for either multidrug-resistant tuberculosis disease or latent infection after multidrug-resistant tuberculosis exposure, to inform future dosing strategies.Blood samples were collected at 0 (RMI only), 1, 2 and 6 hours (50 children, aged 6 months to 15 years) after oral levofloxacin at >6 weeks of treatment. Clinical characteristics and maximal drug concentration (Cmax) of levofloxacin, elimination half-life and area under the curve from 0 to 24 hours (AUC0-24 hours × μg/mL) were correlated to determine the optimal dosage and to examine associations. Population pharmacokinetics and target attainment were modeled. With results from the Federated States of Micronesia, dosages were increased in RMI toward the target Cmax for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 8-12 µg/mL.Cmax correlated linearly with per-weight dosage. Neither Cmax nor half-life was associated with gender, age, body mass index, concurrent medications or predose meals. At levofloxacin dosage of 15-20 mg/kg, Cmax ≥8 µg/mL was observed, and modeling corroborated a high target attainment across the ratio of the area under the free concentration versus time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUCss,0-24/MIC) values.Levofloxacin dosage should be 15-20 mg/kg for Cmax ≥8 µg/mL and a high target attainment across fAUCss,0-24/MIC values in children ≥2 years of age.
Morbidity-mortality conference for adverse events associated with totally implanted venous access for cancer chemotherapy. - Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Although considered safer than central venous catheters for administration of cancer chemotherapy, totally implanted venous access (TIVA) is associated with adverse events that may impair prognosis and quality of life of patients receiving chemotherapy. Our aim was to assess the feasibility and interest of surveillance of cancer chemotherapy TIVA-adverse events (AE), associated with morbidity-mortality conferences (MMCs) on TIVA-AE.We performed a prospective interventional study in two hospitals (a university hospital and a comprehensive care center). For each cancer chemotherapy care pathway within each hospital, we set up surveillance of TIVA-AE and MMC on these events. Patients included in surveillance were those with a TIVA either placed or used for chemotherapy cycles in one of the participating wards. Feasibility of MMC was assessed by the number of MMC meetings that actually took place and the number of participants at each meeting. The interest of MMC was assessed by the number of TIVA-AE identified and analyzed, and the number and type of improvement actions selected and actually implemented.We recorded 0.41 adverse events per 1000 TIVA-day. MMCs were implemented in all care pathways, with sustained pluriprofessional attendance throughout the survey; 39 improvement actions were identified during meetings, and 18 were actually implemented.Surveillance of TIVA-AE associated with MMC is feasible and helps change practices. It could be useful for improving care of patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.
Strong Impact of Smoking on Multimorbidity and Cardiovascular Risk Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals in Comparison With the General Population. - Open forum infectious diseases
Background.  Although acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated morbidity has diminished due to excellent viral control, multimorbidity may be increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons compared with the general population. Methods.  We assessed the prevalence of comorbidities and multimorbidity in participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) compared with the population-based CoLaus study and the primary care-based FIRE (Family Medicine ICPC-Research using Electronic Medical Records) records. The incidence of the respective endpoints were assessed among SHCS and CoLaus participants. Poisson regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking. Results.  Overall, 74 291 participants contributed data to prevalence analyses (3230 HIV-infected; 71 061 controls). In CoLaus, FIRE, and SHCS, multimorbidity was present among 26%, 13%, and 27% of participants. Compared with nonsmoking individuals from CoLaus, the incidence of cardiovascular disease was elevated among smoking individuals but independent of HIV status (HIV-negative smoking: incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-2.5; HIV-positive smoking: IRR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6; HIV-positive nonsmoking: IRR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.44-1.4). Compared with nonsmoking HIV-negative persons, multivariable Poisson regression identified associations of HIV infection with hypertension (nonsmoking: IRR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.4; smoking: IRR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6-2.4), kidney (nonsmoking: IRR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9-3.8; smoking: IRR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.9-3.6), and liver disease (nonsmoking: IRR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4-2.4; smoking: IRR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.2). No evidence was found for an association of HIV-infection or smoking with diabetes mellitus. Conclusions.  Multimorbidity is more prevalent and incident in HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative individuals. Smoking, but not HIV status, has a strong impact on cardiovascular risk and multimorbidity.
Role of the AMP kinase in cytokine-induced human EndoC-βH1 cell death. - Molecular and cellular endocrinology
The aim of the present investigation was to delineate cytokine-induced signaling and death using the EndoC-βH1 cells as a model for primary human beta-cells. The cytokines IL-1β and IFN-γ induced a rapid and transient activation of NF-κB, STAT-1, ERK, JNK and eIF-2α signaling. The EndoC-βH1 cells died rapidly when exposed to IL-1β + IFN-γ, and this occurred also in the presence of the actinomycin D. Inhibition of NF-κB and STAT-1 did not protect against cell death, nor did the cytokines activate iNOS expression. Instead, cytokines promoted a rapid decrease in EndoC-βH1 cell respiration and ATP levels, and we observed protection by the AMPK activator AICAR against cytokine-induced cell death. It is concluded that EndoC-βH1 cell death can be prevented by AMPK activation, which suggests a role for ATP depletion in cytokine-induced human beta-cell death.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Risk factors for death from Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, State of São Paulo, Brazil, 2009. - PloS one
This case-control study aimed to assess the risk factors for death from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in patients with laboratory confirmation, who had severe acute respiratory illness-SARI and were hospitalized between June 28th and August 29th 2009, in the metropolitan regions of São Paulo and Campinas, Brazil. Medical charts of all the 193 patients who died (cases) and the 386 randomly selected patients who recovered (controls) were investigated in 177 hospitals. Household interviews were conducted with those who had survived and the closest relative of those who had died. 73.6% of cases and 38.1% of controls were at risk of developing influenza-related complications. The 18-to-59-year age group (OR = 2.31, 95%CI: 1.31-4.10 (reference up to 18 years of age)), presence of risk conditions for severity of influenza (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.11-3.57, if one or OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.76-13.28, if more than one), obesity (OR = 2.73, 95%CI: 1.28-5.83), immunosuppression (OR = 3.43, 95%CI: 1.28-9.19), and search for previous care associated with the hospitalization (OR = 3.35, 95%CI: 1.75-6.40) were risk factors for death. Antiviral treatment performed within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms (OR = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.08-0.37, if within 48hours, and OR = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.11-0.81, if between 48 and 72 hours) was protective against death. The identification of high-risk patients and early treatment are important factors for reducing morbi-mortality from influenza.
Environmental epidemiology of intestinal schistosomiasis in Uganda: population dynamics of biomphalaria (gastropoda: planorbidae) in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with observations on natural infections with digenetic trematodes. - BioMed research international
This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni) or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P < 0.001) in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P = 0.04) in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert (N = 6,183), 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria (N = 13,172) were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene.
Imatinib mesylate stimulates low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated ERK phosphorylation in insulin-producing cells. - Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is an endocytic and multi-functional type I cell surface membrane protein, which is known to be phosphorylated by the activated platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, which inhibits PDGFR and c-Abl, and which has previously been reported to counteract β-cell death and diabetes, has been suggested to reduce atherosclerosis by inhibiting PDGFR-induced LRP1 phosphorylation. The aim of the present study was to study LRP1 function in β-cells and to what extent imatinib modulates LRP1 activity. LRP1 and c-Abl gene knockdown was performed by RNAi using rat INS-1 832/13 and human EndoC1-βH1 cells. LRP1 was also antagonized by treatment with the antagonist low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein associated protein 1 (LRPAP1). We have used PDGF-BB, a PDGFR agonist, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an LRP1 agonist, to stimulate the activities of PDGFR and LRP1 respectively. Knockdown or inhibition of LRP1 resulted in increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- or cytokine-induced cell death, and glucose-induced insulin release was lowered in LRP1-silenced cells. These results indicate that LRP1 function is necessary for β-cell function and that LRP1 is adversely affected by challenges to β-cell health. PDGF-BB, or the combination of PDGF-BB+ApoE, induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt and LRP1. LRP1 silencing blocked this event. Imatinib blocked phosphorylation of LRP1 by PDGFR activation but induced phosphorylation of ERK. LRP1 silencing blocked imatinib-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Sunitinib also blocked LRP1 phosphorylation in response to PDGF-BB and induced phosphorylation of ERK, but this latter event was not affected by LRP1 knockdown. siRNA-mediated knockdown of the imatinib target c-Abl resulted in an increased ERK phosphorylation at basal conditions, with no further increase in response to imatinib. Imatinib-induced cell survival of tunicamycin-treated cells was partially mediated by ERK activation. We have concluded that imatinib promotes LRP1-dependent ERK activation, possibly via inhibition of c-Abl, and that this could contribute to the pro-survival effects of imatinib on β-cells.
BIT: Biosignal Igniter Toolkit. - Computer methods and programs in biomedicine
The study of biosignals has had a transforming role in multiple aspects of our society, which go well beyond the health sciences domains to which they were traditionally associated with. While biomedical engineering is a classical discipline where the topic is amply covered, today biosignals are a matter of interest for students, researchers and hobbyists in areas including computer science, informatics, electrical engineering, among others. Regardless of the context, the use of biosignals in experimental activities and practical projects is heavily bounded by the cost, and limited access to adequate support materials. In this paper we present an accessible, albeit versatile toolkit, composed of low-cost hardware and software, which was created to reinforce the engagement of different people in the field of biosignals. The hardware consists of a modular wireless biosignal acquisition system that can be used to support classroom activities, interface with other devices, or perform rapid prototyping of end-user applications. The software comprehends a set of programming APIs, a biosignal processing toolbox, and a framework for real time data acquisition and postprocessing.Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine protects partially against cytokine- and hydrogen peroxide-induced β-TC6 cell death in vitro. - Pancreas
It has been proposed that the histamine 1 (H(1)) receptor not only promotes allergic reactions but also modulates autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. In line with this, it has recently been reported that the H(1)-receptor antagonist cetirizine can counteract the activation of signals/factors pertinent to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and cytokine-induced β-cell destruction. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to determine whether H(1)-receptor antagonists affect cytokine-induced β-cell death and signaling in vitro.The insulin-producing cell line β-TC6 was exposed to the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β(+) interferon γ, or hydrogen peroxide. The H(1)-receptor antagonists desloratadine and cetirizine were added to the cell cultures and cell viability; macrophage inhibitory factor levels, c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, c-Jun expression, and β-catenin levels were analyzed by flow cytometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting.Cetirizine protected partially against both cytokine- and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. This effect was paralleled by an inhibition of cytokine-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, c-Jun induction, and a restoration of macrophage inhibitory factor contents. Cetirizine also increased the β-TC6 cell contents of β-catenin at basal conditions.Our results indicate a protective effect of a specific H(1)-receptor antagonist.

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