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Health Policy Training: A Review of the Literature. - International journal of environmental research and public health
The context within which health care and public health systems operate is framed by health policies. There is growing consensus about the need for increased health policy leadership and a health professional workforce prepared to assume these leadership roles. At the same time, there is strong evidence supporting the need for a broader policy lens and the need to intentionally target health disparities. We reviewed the published literature between 1983 and 2013 regarding health policy training. From 5124 articles identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Articles varied across common themes including target audience, goal(s), health policy definition, and core curricular content. The majority of articles were directed to medical or nursing audiences. Most articles framed health policy as health care policy and only a small number adopted a broader health in all policies definition. Few articles specifically addressed vulnerable populations or health disparities. The need for more rigorous research and evaluation to inform health policy training is compelling. Providing health professionals with the knowledge and skills to engage and take leadership roles in health policy will require training programs to move beyond their limited health care-oriented health policy framework to adopt a broader health and health equity in all policies approach.
Impact of peer teaching on nursing students: perceptions of learning environment, self-efficacy, and knowledge. - Nurse education today
Peer teaching has been shown to enhance student learning and levels of self efficacy.The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of peer-teaching learning experiences on nursing students in roles of tutee and tutor in a clinical lab environment.This study was conducted over a three-semester period at a South Central University that provides baccalaureate nursing education.Over three semesters, 179 first year nursing students and 51 third year nursing students participated in the study.This mixed methods study, through concurrent use of a quantitative intervention design and qualitative survey data, examined differences during three semesters in perceptions of a clinical lab experience, self-efficacy beliefs, and clinical knowledge for two groups: those who received peer teaching-learning in addition to faculty instruction (intervention group) and those who received faculty instruction only (control group). Additionally, peer teachers' perceptions of the peer teaching learning experience were examined.Results indicated positive response from the peer tutors with no statistically significant differences for knowledge acquisition and self-efficacy beliefs between the tutee intervention and control groups. In contrast to previous research, students receiving peer tutoring in conjunction with faculty instruction were statistically more anxious about performing lab skills with their peer tutor than with their instructors. Additionally, some students found instructors' feedback moderately more helpful than their peers and increased gains in knowledge and responsibility for preparation and practice with instructors than with peer tutors.The findings in this study differ from previous research in that the use of peer tutors did not decrease anxiety in first year students, and no differences were found between the intervention and control groups related to self efficacy or cognitive improvement. These findings may indicate the need to better prepare peer tutors, and research should be conducted using more complex skills.Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Facilitators and barriers to success among ethnic minority students enrolled in a predominately white baccalaureate nursing program. - Journal of National Black Nurses' Association : JNBNA
This study identified facilitators and barriers to academic success among ethnic minority students enrolled in a BSN program. The following research questions were asked: What factors (a) facilitate academic performance; (b) are barriers to academic performance; (c) influence the college experience and academic success; (d) within the nursing department, influence academic success; (e) What is the impact of socialization on academic performance; (f) What were facilitators of academic success identified among study participants; and, (g) Which facilitators, identified by subjects, were most common among those participants? A retrospective-descriptive study design consisted of a sample of all minority students who were enrolled in clinical at a baccalaureate nursing program between 2005 and the fall of 2010. Bandura's theory on self-efficacy was used. Loftus and Duty's Survey of Factors Influencing Student Retention and Academic Success was adapted. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0 with ANOVA to determine if a significant difference in responses existed.
The relationship between vitamin D and cancer. - Clinical journal of oncology nursing
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin naturally present in very few foods, is synthesized when ultraviolet rays from sunlight contact the skin. Research suggests that vitamin D insufficiency may result from lack of exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet-B radiation. Individuals from geographic areas of high latitude and low sunlight exposure may be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. Emerging evidence supports the protective role of vitamin D in the prevention of several cancers, including breast, colon, and prostate.
Spiritual development of nursing students: developing competence to provide spiritual care to patients at the end of life. - The Journal of nursing education
Nurses spend more time with their patients than do other health care workers. Therefore, the spiritual needs of patients must be recognized as a domain of nursing care. Holism cannot exist without consideration of the spiritual aspects that create individuality and give meaning to people's lives. The purpose of this article is to provide nursing faculty with tools that may be used to develop spiritually knowledgeable nursing students who can overcome barriers to providing spiritual care to end-of-life patients. Our students were required to complete care maps to ensure they are prepared for patient care at the end of life. In this article, we present tools that faculty and students may use to complete the spiritual concept in care mapping. The literature on spirituality is reviewed, use of care mapping in nursing curricula is described, and our teaching approach to develop nursing students who are skilled at providing spiritual care is explained. Three case studies and care maps created by former students are also presented to demonstrate examples of spiritual competence.
Effects of dietary flaxseed oil supplementation on equine plasma fatty acid concentrations and whole blood platelet aggregation. - Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
An 18-week feeding trial was performed to investigate the effects of an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid-enriched ration on plasma fatty acid concentrations and platelet aggregation in healthy horses. Flaxseed oil served as the source of the n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Twelve horses were fed dietary maintenance requirements using a complete pelleted ration (80%) and timothy grass hay (20%) for a 2-week acclimation period before being randomly assigned either to a treatment (group 1) or control (group 2) group. Group 2 horses (n = 6) were fed the diet described in the acclimation period, whereas group I horses (n = 6) were fed a 10% flaxseed oil-enriched complete pellet (80%) and grass hay (20%). Biological samples and physical measurements were collected at one point during the acclimation period (week 0) and every 4 weeks thereafter (weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16). Body weight, CBC (including platelet count), plasma fibrinogen. electrolyte (Na, K, and Cl) concentrations, and biochemical profile enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and creatine kinase) did not change markedly with diet. Platelet aggregation was not altered by the supplementation of flaxseed oil in these healthy horses, although increases in plasma cis-polyunsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids C18:3; n-3 (ALA) and C18:2; n-6 (linoleic acid), biologically active C20:5; n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evident. There were no marked decreases in C20:4; n-6 (arachidonic acid [AA]) or increases in C22:6; n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]), signifying that flaxseed oil may have had a high percentage of omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids as well as n-3 fatty acids, and this relatively high n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratio may have affected the biochemical effect of n-3 fatty acids. In healthy horses supplemented with flaxseed oil, platelet aggregation was not altered, which may have been due to the limited biologic effect in healthy subjects or the inability of flaxseed oil to induce the necessary biochemical effect of replacing n-6 fatty acids with n-3 types.
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