21214 Northwest Fwy Suite 220
Cypress TX 77429
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Non-enzymatic glucose sensing by enhanced Raman spectroscopy on flexible 'as-grown' CVD graphene. - The Analyst
Unmodified, as-grown few layered graphene on copper substrates have been used for glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy. Graphene with a stronger 2D band is a better Raman enhancer with significant fluorescence suppression and finer line widths of the Raman signals. The origin of the graphene enhanced Raman spectroscopy (GERS) signal of glucose is attributed to a fractional charge transfer (calculated to be 0.006 using electrochemical parameters) between glucose and graphene aided by a possible Ï€-Ï€ interaction. Physiological concentrations of glucose (10-500 mg dl(-1)) in PBS have been used for the study. For each glucose concentration, the spectral reproducibility is within 5-25% as calculated by the relative standard deviation of several measurements. The intensity ratio of the 1122 cm(-1) peak of glucose and the 2D peak of graphene varied linearly with the glucose concentration and can be used as a calibration curve for unknown sample measurements.
Edge promoted ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of organic bio-molecules on epitaxial graphene nanowalls. - Biosensors & bioelectronics
We report the simultaneous electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on three dimensional (3D) unmodified 'as-grown' epitaxial graphene nanowall arrays (EGNWs). The 3D few layer EGNWs, unlike the 2D planar graphene, offers an abundance of vertically oriented nano-graphitic-edges that exhibit fast electron-transfer kinetics and high electroactive surface area to geometrical area (EAA/GAâ‰ˆ134%), as evident from the Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) redox kinetic study. The hexagonal sp(2)-C domains, on the basal plane of the EGNWs, facilitate efficient adsorption via spontaneous Ï€-Ï€ interaction with the aromatic rings in DA and UA. Such affinity together with the fast electron kinetics enables simultaneous and unambiguous identification of individual AA, DA and UA from their mixture. The unique edge dominant EGNWs result in an unprecedented low limit of detection (experimental) of 0.033nM and highest sensitivity of 476.2ÂµA/ÂµM/cm(2), for UA, which are orders of magnitude higher than comparable existing reports. A reaction kinetics based modeling of the edge-oriented 3D EGNW system is proposed to illustrate the superior electro-activity for bio-sensing applications.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Inhibition of nucleoporin member Nup214 expression by miR-133b perturbs mitotic timing and leads to cell death. - Molecular cancer
Nucleoporins mediate nucleocytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules and several have been assigned active mitotic functions. Nucleoporins can participate in various mitotic functions like spindle assembly, kinetochore organisation and chromosome segregation- important for genome integrity. Pathways to genome integrity are frequently deregulated in cancer and many are regulated in part by microRNAs. Indeed, altered levels of numerous microRNAs have frequently been associated with tumorigenesis. Here, we unveil a microRNA-mediated regulation of the nucleoporin Nup214 and its downstream effect on genome integrity.Databases/bioinformatic tools such as miRBase, Oncomine and RNAhybrid predicted Nup214 as a miR-133b target. To validate this, we used luciferase reporter assays, Real-Time PCR and immuno-blotting. Flow cytometry and immuno-blots of mitotic markers were used to analyse cell cycle pattern upon thymidine synchronization and miR-133b treatment. Mitotic indices and chromosomal abnormalities were assessed by immuno-fluorescence for FITC-tagged phospho-H3 as well as video-microscopy for GFP-tagged histone H4. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, caspase3/PARP cleavage and colony formation assays were done to investigate cell death upon either miR-133b transfection or NUP214 knockdown by siRNA. UPCI:SCC084, HCT116, HeLa-H4-pEGFP and HEK293 (human oral squamous cell carcinoma, colorectal, cervical carcinomas and embryonic kidney cell lines, respectively) were used. miR-133b and NUP214 expressions were validated in cancer cell lines and tissues by Real-Time PCR.Examination of head and neck tumour tissues and cancer cell lines revealed that Nup214 and miR-133b expressions are negatively correlated. In vitro, Nup214 was significantly downregulated by ectopic miR-133b. This downregulation elevated mitotic indices and delayed degradation of mitotic marker proteins cyclinB1 and cyclinA and dephosphorylation of H3. Moreover, this mitotic delay enhanced chromosomal abnormalities and apoptosis.We have identified NUP214, a member of the massive nuclear pore complex, as a novel miR-133b target. Thus, we have shown a hitherto unknown microRNA regulation of mitosis mediated by a member of the nucleoporin family. Based on observations, we also raise some hypotheses regarding transport-dependent/independent functions of Nup214 in this study. Our results hence attempt to explain why miR-133b is generally downregulated in tumours and lay out the potential for Nup214 as a therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer.
Comparative evaluation of prevalence of upper cervical vertebrae anomalies in cleft lip/palate patients: a retrospective study. - International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry
The patients with cleft lip and palate have a higher risk of cervical vertebrae anomalies than do patients in general population. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of various upper cervical spine anomalies in different type of clefts.Lateral cephalograms of 128 patients (66 males, 62 females) with cleft lip and palate, and 125 (60 males, 65 females) non syndromic patients without cleft lip and palate were selected at random from archive. Cephalograms of the patients were traced and the diagnosis of any cervical vertebrae anomaly was noted. Anomalies were categorized as either: posterior arch deficiency or fusions.Prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies in the c lef t group was 20. 3% while it was 6.4% in the control group. Further cervical vertebrae anomalies were 16.6% in the CPO group, 19.1% in the BCLP group, and 22.2% in the UCLP group.A higher prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies was observed in cleft lip and palate patients. The prevalenc e obser ved is 3 times more in clef t group than c ontrol group. How to cite this article: Datana S, Bhalla A, Kumar P, Roy SK, Londhe S. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):168-171.
Withaferin A modulates the Spindle assembly checkpoint by degradation of Mad2-Cdc20 complex in colorectal cancer cell lines. - Biochemical pharmacology
Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Ashwagandha) is used over centuries in the ayurvedic medicines in India. Withaferin A, a withanolide, is the major compound present in leaf extract of the plant which shows anticancer activity against leukemia, breast cancer and colorectal cancer. It arrests the ovarian cancer cells in the G2/M phase in dose dependent manner. In the current study we show the effect of Withaferin A on cell cycle regulation of colorectal cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW480 and its effect on cell fate. Treatment of these cells with this compound leads to apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. It causes the G2/M arrest in both the cell lines. We show that Withaferin A (WA) causes mitotic delay by blocking Spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) function. Apoptosis induced by Withaferin A is associated with proteasomal degradation of Mad2 and Cdc20, an important constituent of the Spindle Checkpoint Complex. Further overexpression of Mad2 partially rescues the deleterious effect of WA by restoring proper anaphase initiation and keeping more number of cells viable. We hypothesize that Withaferin A kills cancer cells by delaying the mitotic exit followed by inducing chromosome instability.Copyright Â© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rab11 plays an indispensable role in the differentiation and development of the indirect flight muscles in Drosophila. - PloS one
Rab11, an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitously expressed subfamily of small monomeric GTPase has been known to regulate diverse cellular and developmental events, by regulating the exocytotic and transcytotic events inside the cell. Our studies show that Rab11 regulates Drosophila adult myogenesis by controlling proliferation and differentiation of the Adult muscle precursors (AMPs). Blocking Rab11 in the AMPs, which fuse to form the Indirect Flight Muscles (IFMs) of fly, renders flies completely flightless and non-viable. The indirect flight musculature, comprising of the differentially patterned dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs) and dorsal ventral muscles (DVMs), is affected to different extents. Abrogating or knocking down normal Rab11 function results in severely disrupted IFMs. DLMs forming from larval templates are reduced in number along with a significant reduction in their fibre size. The de novo developing DVMs are frequently absent. The DLMs in Rab11 hypomorphs are highly reduced, showing as a small constricted mass in one half of the thorax. Further, Rab11 function is essential for growth of these muscles during later half of adult myogenesis, as down regulation of Rab11 in IFMs results in degenerated muscles and broken fibres. Finally, we show that loss of Rab11 activity in the AMPs result in acquisition of migratory characteristic of myoblast as they show cellular protrusion at their polar ends accompanied with loss of cell-cell contacts. Our data provide the first evidence of a trafficking protein playing an indispensable role in regulating early stages of adult muscle development.
Indications of 1342 fetal cord blood sampling procedures performed as an integral part of high risk pregnancy care. - Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India
Fetal umbilical cord blood sampling is now being performed worldwide, using an ultrasound guided technique, for prenatal diagnosis in pregnancies at high risk for several congenital and genetic defects in the fetus. Awareness of feasibility of the procedure and indications for the same should be known to every obstetrician.To study the indications for Fetal Cord Blood Sampling in high risk pregnancy patients in the last 20Â years at a tertiary referral center in India.Women referred to the Fetal Medicine Clinic for fetal blood sampling from January 1990 to November 2009, were assessed. An informed consent was taken. Under continuous ultrasound guidance, a 22 gauge long spinal needle was inserted through the maternal abdomen and uterine wall into the umbilical cord, and about 2-4Â ml of blood, depending on the indication was aspirated by syringe. The various indications for fetal blood sampling in 1342 women were analyzed.Cord blood sampling was performed for the following indications: Hb in Rh Isoimmunized pregnancies-553 cases, Chromosomal analysis-427 cases, non-immune hydrops/pleural effusion/ascites-cases 88, Congenital Infections-131 cases, Intrauterine Growth Restriction-51 cases, Thalassemia-53 cases, Hemophilia-36 cases, and for Thyroid function test for fetal goiter in 3 cases, in total 1,342 women.There were several absolute indications for fetal cord blood sampling in high risk pregnant women, to provide state-of-the-art information on the health of the fetus. Awareness of the procedure and indications for the same should be known to every obstetrician as it is technically feasible, expertise is available in India; so that women who require the procedure may be referred in time.
Rab11 is Required for Maintenance of Cell Shape Via Î²PS Integrin Mediated Cell Adhesion in Drosophila. - International journal of molecular and cellular medicine
In eukaryotes, vesicle trafficking is regulated by the small monomeric GTPases of the Rab protein family. Rab11, (a subfamily of the Ypt/Rab gene family) an evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitously expressed subfamily of small monomeric Rab GTPases, has been implicated in regulating vesicular trafficking through the recycling of endosomal compartment. In an earlier communication, we have shown that Rab11 is required for cell adhesion, maintenance of cell shape and actin-cytoskeleton organization during Drosophila wing development. Here, we report that Rab11 is required for the maintenance of cell shape via Î²PS integrin mediated cell adhesion. Cuticle preparations of the embryos, when Rab11 is over-expressed or activity of Rab11 is reduced via a double-stranded RNAi line, show dorsal open phenotypes. Immuno-fluorescence and immuno-histochemical analyses on embryos in the same genetic backgrounds also affect the localization of Î²PS integrins from the adhesion site of leading edge and amnioserosa cells during the dorsal closure stages of embryogenesis as well as the cellular morphology (cell shape) of the lateral epidermal cells.
Effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient utilisation and serum biochemical parameters in dromedary camels. - Tropical animal health and production
The effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient digestibility, nutritive value, nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters was studied using nine male dromedary camels of Bikaneri breeds (637.5 kg average body weight; 8-9 years of age). Groundnut haulms (GNH) and cluster bean straw (CBS) were fed in one of three ratios, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 in treatments T(1), T(2) and T(3), respectively. In all treatments, concentrate mixture was fed as per requirement of the camels. The groundnut haulms were more nutritive as compared to the cluster bean straw. The nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), crude fibre and acid detergent fibre was better in T(1) than T(2) and T(3). Likewise, the CP, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient contents were significantly higher in T(1) followed by T(2) and T(3). There was non-significant affect on average daily gain of camels. However, dry matter intake, digestible crude protein intake and total digestible nutrients were better in T(1) as compared to T(2) and T(3). The total water intake per kilogram of dry matter intake (litres) was 2.98, 2.89 and 2.68, respectively, in T(1), T(2) and T(3). The camels in all the treatments were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance. The treatments had a significant effect on serum biochemical parameters like glucose, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase and creatinine. The results may conclude that feeding of higher proportion of groundnut haulms as compared to cluster bean straw has pronounced improvement in nutritional utilisation by the camels.
Isolation and characterization of Cr (VI) tolerant bacteria from tannery waste and its bioremediation potential. - Journal of environmental science & engineering
The East Kolkata wetland, situated in West Bengal, India, is presently being exploited by housing many leather complexes surrounding the zone in and around. High amount of either untreated or partially treated liquid tannery wastes are discharged in the wetland. Treated effluent from some common effluent treatment plant (CETP) showed the presence of Cr (VI) exceeding the limiting concentration. Three different bacterial strains (L1, L2, and L3) were isolated from the treated effluent. Morphological and biochemical characterizations exhibited that they belong to Gram positive Bacillus group. All such strains proved to be chromate tolerant in the concentration ranging from 20 to 50 mg/L. Significant reduction in Cr (VI) was observed in all those strains, especially L3 [86.3% removal corresponding to 30 mg/L initial concentration]. Cytosolic fraction was involved in Cr reductase capacity. Molecular characterization by 16S rDNA genome sequencing of L3 [the most promising isolate, in terms of chromium (VI) tolerance] confirmed that the strain is Bacillus cereus GXBC-1.
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21214 Northwest Fwy Suite 220 Cypress, TX 77429
21212 Northwest Fwy #225