Dr. Garen  Vartanian  Dc image

Dr. Garen Vartanian Dc

1228 N Hacienda Blvd
La Puente CA 91744
626 189-9542
Medical School: Other - Unknown
Accepts Medicare: No
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: DC-27187
NPI: 1013028026
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Using Flickering Light to Enhance Nonimage-Forming Visual Stimulation in Humans. - Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate nonimage-forming visual functions such as pupillary constriction and circadian photoentrainment. Optimizing daytime nonimage-forming photostimulation has health benefits. We aimed to enhance ipRGC excitation using flickering instead of steady light.Human subjects were tested with a three-dimensional matrix of flickering 463-nm stimuli: three photon counts (13.7, 14.7 and 15.7 log photons cm(-2)), three duty cycles (12%, 47%, and 93%) and seven flicker frequencies (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 7 Hz). Steady-state pupil constrictions were measured.Among stimuli containing 13.7 log photons cm-2, the one flickering at 2 Hz with a 12% duty cycle evoked the greatest pupil constriction of 48% ± 4%, 71% greater than that evoked by an equal-intensity (12.3 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)) continuous light. This frequency and duty cycle were also best for 14.7 log photons cm-2 stimuli, inducing a 58% ± 4% constriction which was 38% more than that caused by an equal-intensity (13.3 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)) constant light. For 15.7 log photons cm-2 stimuli, the 1-Hz, 47% duty cycle flicker was optimal although it evoked the same constriction as the best 14.7 log photons cm(-2) flicker.Pupillary constriction depends on flicker frequency and duty cycle besides intensity. Among the stimuli tested, the one with the lowest photon count inducing a maximal response is 13.3 log photons cm(-2) s(-1) flickering at 2 Hz with 12% duty cycle. Our data could guide the design of healthier architectural lighting and better phototherapy devices for treating seasonal affective disorder and jet lag.
Melatonin Suppression by Light in Humans Is More Sensitive Than Previously Reported. - Journal of biological rhythms
The retina drives various non-image-forming photoresponses, including circadian photoentrainment and pupil constriction. Previous investigators showed that in humans, photic suppression of the clock-controlled hormone melatonin is most sensitive to 460-nm blue light, with a threshold of ~12 log photons cm(-2) s(-1). This threshold is surprising because non-image-forming vision is mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, which receive rod-driven synaptic input and can respond to light levels as low as ~7 log photons cm(-2) s(-1). Using a protocol that enhances data precision, we have found the threshold for human melatonin suppression to be ~10 log photons cm(-2) s(-1) at 460 nm. This finding has far-reaching implications since there is mounting evidence that nocturnal activation of the circadian system can be harmful.© 2015 The Author(s).

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