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Dr. Michael  Thornton  Md image

Dr. Michael Thornton Md

4150 V St Suite 3400
Sacramento CA 95817
916 343-3566
Medical School: Other - 2000
Accepts Medicare: Yes
Participates In eRX: No
Participates In PQRS: No
Participates In EHR: No
License #: A81778
NPI: 1003892233
Taxonomy Codes:
207R00000X 207RC0200X 207RP1001X 208M00000X

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Publications

Endovascular treatment for Small Core and Anterior circulation Proximal occlusion with Emphasis on minimizing CT to recanalization times (ESCAPE) trial: methodology. - International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society
ESCAPE is a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial that will enroll subjects with the following main inclusion criteria: less than 12 h from symptom onset, age > 18, baseline NIHSS >5, ASPECTS score of >5 and CTA evidence of carotid T/L or M1 segment MCA occlusion, and at least moderate collaterals by CTA. The trial will determine if endovascular treatment will result in higher rates of favorable outcome compared with standard medical therapy alone. Patient populations that are eligible include those receiving IV tPA, tPA ineligible and unwitnessed onset or wake up strokes with 12 h of last seen normal. The primary end-point, based on intention-to-treat criteria is the distribution of modified Rankin Scale scores at 90 days assessed using a proportional odds model. The projected maximum sample size is 500 subjects. Randomization is stratified under a minimization process using age, gender, baseline NIHSS, baseline ASPECTS (8-10 vs. 6-7), IV tPA treatment and occlusion location (ICA vs. MCA) as covariates. The study will have one formal interim analysis after 300 subjects have been accrued. Secondary end-points at 90 days include the following: mRS 0-1; mRS 0-2; Barthel 95-100, EuroQOL and a cognitive battery. Safety outcomes are symptomatic ICH, major bleeding, contrast nephropathy, total radiation dose, malignant MCA infarction, hemicraniectomy and mortality at 90 days.© 2014 World Stroke Organization.
The unfolded protein response regulator GRP78 is a novel predictive biomarker in colorectal cancer. - International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer
Adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based (5-FU) chemotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC), but only provides benefit for a subset of patients. To improve stratification we examined (for the first time in CRC), whether analysis of GRP78 expression provides a predictive biomarker and performed functional studies to examine the role of GRP78 in sensitivity to 5-FU. 396 CRC patient samples were collected in a prospective uniform manner and GRP78 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays using a well-validated antibody. Expression was correlated with clinicopathological parameters and survival. The role of GRP78 in 5-FU sensitivity was examined in CRC cells using siRNA, drug inhibition and flow cytometry. GRP78 expression was significantly elevated in cancer tissue (p < 0.0001), and correlated with depth of invasion (p = 0.029) and stage (p = 0.032). Increased overall 5-year survival was associated with high GRP78 expression (p = 0.036). Patients with stage II cancers treated by surgery alone, with high GRP78 also had improved survival (71% v 50%; p = 0.032). Stage III patients with high GRP78 showed significant benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (52% vs. 28%; p = 0.026), whereas patients with low GRP78 failed to benefit (28% vs. 32%; p = 0.805). Low GRP78 was an independent prognostic indicator of reduced overall 5-year survival (p = 0.004; HR = 1.551; 95%CI 1.155-2.082). In vitro, inhibition of GRP78 reduces apoptosis in response to 5-FU in p53 wild-type cells. GRP78 expression may provide a simple additional risk stratification to inform the adjuvant treatment of CRC and future studies should combine analysis with determination of p53 status.Copyright © 2013 UICC.
Combining highly multiplexed PCR with semiconductor-based sequencing for rapid cancer genotyping. - The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
There is growing demand for routine identification of actionable mutations in clinical cancer specimens. Genotyping platforms must provide rapid turnaround times and work effectively with limited amounts of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens that often yield poor quality DNA. We describe semiconductor-based sequencing of DNA from FFPE specimens using a single-tube, multiplexed panel of 190 amplicons targeting 46 cancer genes. With just 10 ng of input DNA, average read depths of 2000× can be obtained in 48 hours, with >95% of the reads on target. A validation set of 45 FFPE tumor specimens containing 53 point mutations previously identified with a mass spectrometry-based genotyping platform, along with 19 indels ranging from 4 to 63 bp, was used to evaluate assay performance. With a mutant allele ratio cutoff of 8%, we were able to achieve 100% sensitivity (95% CI = 97.3% to 100.0%) and 95.1% specificity (95% CI = 91.8% to 98.0%) of point mutation detection. All indels were visible by manual inspection of aligned reads; 6/9 indels ≤12 bp long were detected by the variant caller software either exactly or as mismatched nucleotides within the indel region. The rapid turnaround time and low input DNA requirements make the multiplex PCR and semiconductor-based sequencing approach a viable option for mutation detection in a clinical laboratory.Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Management and outcome of colorectal anastomotic leaks. - International journal of colorectal disease
Anastomotic leak is a devastating complication of an intestinal anastomosis. Optimal management and outcome is not routinely described, and much of our knowledge relies upon historical data. We wished to examine the management and outcome of anastomotic leaks on a colorectal surgery unit in the twenty-first century.A retrospective audit of all patients who had a colorectal anastomotic leak between January 2002 and December 2008 in a large university teaching hospital. Data collected included patient characteristics, primary diagnosis, mode of diagnosis and time to diagnosis of anastomotic leak, inpatient management, morbidity and mortality, permanent stoma rate, use of hospital resources.Thirty patients (16 male, 14 female), with a median age of 60 years (range 25-84 years), had an anastomotic leak. The median time to presentation of clinically suspected leaks was 12 days (range 3-56 days). Fourteen patients required reoperation, with ten needing the anastomosis take down. Average hospital stay was 40 days. The permanent stoma rate following a rectal anastomotic leak was 27% and 57.1% from a colonic leak. Overall mortality in this series was 27%. Mortality was higher after leak from a colonic anastomosis than after leak from a rectal anastomosis (43.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively).Anastomotic leaks are not detected until late in the post-operative period and are associated with a high mortality. Demand on hospital resources is high. In this series, patients who leaked after a colonic anastomosis had a higher mortality and permanent stoma rate than after leaks from a rectal anastomosis.
In vivo efficacy of platelet-delivered, high specific activity factor VIII variants. - Blood
Ectopically expressed, human B-domainless (hB) factor 8 (F8) in platelets improves hemostasis in hemophilia A mice in several injury models. However, in both a cuticular bleeding model and a cremaster laser arteriole/venule injury model, there were limitations to platelet-derived (p) hBF8 efficacy, including increased clot embolization. We now address whether variants of F8 with enhanced activity, inactivation resistant F8 (IR8) and canine (c) BF8, would improve clotting efficacy. In both transgenic and lentiviral murine model approaches, pIR8 expressed at comparable levels to phBF8, but pcBF8 expressed at only approximately 30%. Both variants were more effective than hBF8 in cuticular bleeding and FeCl(3) carotid artery models. However, in the cremaster injury model, only pcBF8 was more effective, markedly decreasing clot embolization. Because inhibitors of F8 are stored in platelet granules and IR8 is not protected by binding to von Willebrand factor, we also tested whether pIR8 was effective in the face of inhibitors and found that pIR8 is protected from the inhibitors. In summary, pF8 variants with high specific activity are more effective in controlling bleeding, but this improved efficacy was inconsistent between bleeding models, perhaps reflecting the underlying mechanism(s) for the increased specific activity of the studied F8 variants.
Beam hardening artifacts in micro-computed tomography scanning can be reduced by X-ray beam filtration and the resulting images can be used to accurately measure BMD. - Bone
Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements are critical in many research studies investigating skeletal integrity. For pre-clinical research, micro-computed tomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in these studies. However, the ability to measure the BMD directly from microCT images can be biased by artifacts, such as beam hardening, in the image. This three-part study was designed to understand how the image acquisition process can affect the resulting BMD measurements and to verify that the BMD measurements are accurate. In the first part of this study, the effect of beam hardening-induced cupping artifacts on BMD measurements was examined. In the second part of this study, the number of bones in the X-ray path and the sampling process during scanning was examined. In the third part of this study, microCT-based BMD measurements were compared with ash weights to verify the accuracy of the measurements. The results indicate that beam hardening artifacts of up to 32.6% can occur in sample sizes of interest in studies investigating mineralized tissue and affect mineral density measurements. Beam filtration can be used to minimize these artifacts. The results also indicate that, for murine femora, the scan setup can impact densitometry measurements for both cortical and trabecular bone and morphologic measurements of trabecular bone. Last, when a scan setup that minimized all of these artifacts was used, the microCT-based measurements correlated well with ash weight measurements (R(2)=0.983 when air was excluded), indicating that microCT can be an accurate tool for murine bone densitometry.
Structural and therapeutic insights from the species specificity and in vivo antithrombotic activity of a novel alphaIIb-specific alphaIIbbeta3 antagonist. - Blood
We previously reported on a novel compound (Compound 1; RUC-1) identified by high-throughput screening that inhibits human alphaIIbbeta3. RUC-1 did not inhibit alphaVbeta3, suggesting that it interacts with alphaIIb, and flexible ligand/rigid protein molecular docking studies supported this speculation. We have now studied RUC-1's effects on murine and rat platelets, which are less sensitive than human to inhibition by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides due to differences in the alphaIIb sequences contributing to the binding pocket. We found that RUC-1 was much less potent in inhibiting aggregation of murine and rat platelets. Moreover, RUC-1 potently inhibited fibrinogen binding to murine platelets expressing a hybrid alphaIIbbeta3 receptor composed of human alphaIIb and murine beta3, but not a hybrid receptor composed of murine alphaIIb and human beta3. Molecular docking studies of RUC-1 were consistent with the functional data. In vivo studies of RUC-1 administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 26.5 mg/kg demonstrated antithrombotic effects in both ferric chloride carotid artery and laser-induced microvascular injury models in mice with hybrid halphaIIb/mbeta3 receptors. Collectively, these data support RUC-1's specificity for alphaIIb, provide new insights into the alphaIIb binding pocket, and establish RUC-1's antithrombotic effects in vivo.
Species differences in small molecule binding to alpha IIb beta 3 are the result of sequence differences in 2 loops of the alpha IIb beta propeller. - Blood
Compared with human platelets, rodent platelets are less responsive to peptides and peptidomimetics containing an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif. Using chimeric human-rat alphaIIbbeta3 molecules, we found that this difference in Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) sensitivity was the result of amino acid substitutions at residues 157, 159, and 162 in the W3:4-1 loop and an Asp-His replacement at residue 232 in the W4:4-1 loop of the alphaIIb beta propeller. Introducing the entire rat W3:4-1 and W4:4-1 loops into human alphaIIbbeta3 also decreased the inhibitory effect of the disintegrins, echistatin and eristostatin, and the alphaIIbbeta3 antagonists, tirofiban and eptifibatide, on fibrinogen binding, whereas the specific point mutations did not. This suggests that RGDS interacts with alphaIIb in a different manner than with these small molecules. None of these species-based substitutions affected the ability of alphaIIbbeta3 to interact with RGD-containing macromolecules. Thus, human von Willebrand factor contains an RGD motif and binds equally well to adenosine diphosphate-stimulated human and rodent platelets, implying that other motifs are responsible for maintaining ligand binding affinity. Many venoms contain RGD-based toxins. Our data suggest that these species amino acids differences in the alphaIIb beta-propeller represent an evolutionary response by rodents to maintain hemostasis while concurrently protecting against RGD-containing toxins.
Prospective respiratory-gated micro-CT of free breathing rodents. - Medical physics
Microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) has the potential to noninvasively image the structure of organs in rodent models with high spatial resolution and relatively short image acquisition times. However, motion artifacts associated with the normal respiratory motion of the animal may arise when imaging the abdomen or thorax. To reduce these artifacts and the accompanying loss of spatial resolution, we propose a prospective respiratory gating technique for use with anaesthetized, free-breathing rodents. A custom-made bed with an embedded pressure chamber was connected to a pressure transducer. Anaesthetized animals were placed in the prone position on the bed with their abdomens located over the chamber. During inspiration, the motion of the diaphragm caused an increase in the chamber pressure, which was converted into a voltage signal by the transducer. An output voltage was used to trigger image acquisition at any desired time point in the respiratory cycle. Digital radiographic images were acquired of anaesthetized, free-breathing rats with a digital radiographic system to correlate the respiratory wave form with respiration-induced organ motion. The respiratory wave form was monitored and recorded simultaneously with the x-ray radiation pulses, and an imaging window was defined, beginning at end expiration. Phantom experiments were performed to verify that the respiratory gating apparatus was triggering the micro-CT system. Attached to the distensible phantom were 100 microm diameter copper wires and the measured full width at half maximum was used to assess differences in image quality between respiratory-gated and ungated imaging protocols. This experiment allowed us to quantify the improvement in the spatial resolution, and the reduction of motion artifacts caused by moving structures, in the images resulting from respiratory-gated image acquisitions. The measured wire diameters were 0.135 mm for the stationary phantom image, 0.137 mm for the image gated at end deflation, 0.213 mm for the image gated at peak inflation, and 0.406 mm for the ungated image. Micro-CT images of anaesthetized, free-breathing rats were acquired with a General Electric Healthcare eXplore RS in vivo micro-CT system. Images of the thorax were acquired using the respiratory cycle-based trigger for the respiratory-gated mode. Respiratory gated-images were acquired at inspiration and end expiration, during a period of minimal respiration-induced organ motion. Gated images were acquired with a nominal isotropic voxel spacing of 44 microm in 20-25 min (80 kVp, 113 mAs, 300 ms imaging window per projection). The equivalent ungated acquisitions were 11 min in length. We observed improved definition of the diaphragm boundary and increased conspicuity of small structures within the lungs in the gated images, when compared to the ungated acquisitions. In this work, we have characterized the externally monitored respiratory wave form of free-breathing, anaesthetized rats and correlated the respiration-induced organ motion to the respiratory cycle. We have shown that the respiratory pressure wave form is an excellent surrogate for the radiographic organ motion. This information facilitates the definition of an imaging window at any phase of the breathing cycle. This approach for prospectively gated micro-CT can provide high quality images of anaesthetized free-breathing rodents.
Case report: an unusual case of sudden cardiovascular collapse in an elderly adult. - The California journal of emergency medicine / California Chapter of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine
In our report we describe a case of foreign body aspiration leading to arrest. The patient's resuscitation was remarkable for the development of a large pneumothorax and atelectasis of the right lung. Aspiration was suspected and early bronchoscopy was performed. A large grape was found to be obstructing the right main stem bronchus and was retrieved using a bronchoscopic snare. In this case early intervention allowed the removal of the intact grape with subsequent re-expansion of the lung. The technique used for retrieval is described.

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