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Paramagnetic spherical nanoparticles by the self-assembly of persistent trityl radicals. - Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
Spherical nanoparticles and fibres observable by cryo-electron microscopy are spontaneously formed by the Finland trityl radical at concentrations above 15 mM. These species represent a new class of paramagnetic, metal-free, nanoscale supramolecular materials. Self-association was observed under a variety of experimental conditions, including aqueous solution at room temperature, low temperature frozen glasses and the gas phase. Oligomers formed by at least 5 Finland radicals were detected by ion-mobility mass spectrometry. Magnetic susceptibility data as well as low temperature EPR spectra show coupling between electronic spins in the self-assembled species. Quantum chemical calculations show stacking along the C3 symmetry axis. Nanoparticle formation requires additional lateral packing that can be provided by hydrogen bonding involving the triangular array of carboxylic acid groups leading to the assembly of geodesic spheres.
Heart rate variability during plateau waves of intracranial pressure: A pilot descriptive study. - Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
This study aims to describe heart rate variability during the first episode of plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in order to characterize and identify at bedside this cerebrovascular phenomenon. The general behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV) spectral measures expressed in the medians across patients is concordant with an increased HRV in the latter part of the baseline and plateau wave, followed by a decrease after the event and a new increase during the recovery. In low and high frequency bands the same increase is more marked in the parametric analysis. Interpretation of HRV may help clinicians to better identify the plateau waves and allow earlier management.
'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', Causal Agent of Citrus Huanglongbing, Is Reduced by Treatment with Brassinosteroids. - PloS one
Huanglongbing (HLB) constitutes the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide, yet no established efficient management measures exist for it. Brassinosteroids, a family of plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. As a possible control strategy for HLB, epibrassinolide was applied to as a foliar spray to citrus plants infected with the causal agent of HLB, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. The bacterial titers were reduced after treatment with epibrassinolide under both greenhouse and field conditions but were stronger in the greenhouse. Known defense genes were induced in leaves by epibrassinolide. With the SuperSAGE technology combined with next generation sequencing, induction of genes known to be associated with defense response to bacteria and hormone transduction pathways were identified. The results demonstrate that epibrassinolide may provide a useful tool for the management of HLB.
An Autistic Endophenotype and Testosterone Are Involved in an Atypical Decline in Selective Attention and Visuospatial Processing in Middle-Aged Women. - International journal of environmental research and public health
Mothers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) could present mild forms of their children's cognitive characteristics, resulting from prenatal brain exposure and sensitivity to testosterone (T). Indeed, their cognition is frequently characterized by hyper-systemizing, outperforming in tests that assess cognitive domains such as selective attention, and fine motor and visuospatial skills. In the general population, all these start to decline around the mid-forties. This study aimed to characterize whether middle-aged women who are biological mothers of individuals with ASD had better performance in the aforementioned cognitive skills than mothers of normative children (in both groups n = 22; mean age = 45), using the standardized Stroop and mirror-drawing tests. We also examined the role of T in their performance in the aforementioned tests. ASD mothers outperformed controls in both tests, giving more correct answers and making fewer mistakes. In addition, they presented higher T levels, which have been associated with better cognitive performance. Cognitive decline in specific skills with aging could be delayed in these middle-aged women, corresponding to a cognitive endophenotype, T playing an important role in this process.
Functional and anatomical basis for brain plasticity in facial palsy rehabilitation using the masseteric nerve. - Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
Several techniques have been described for smile restoration after facial nerve paralysis. When a nerve other than the contralateral facial nerve is used to restore the smile, some controversy appears because of the nonphysiological mechanism of smile recovering. Different authors have reported natural results with the masseter nerve. The physiological pathways which determine whether this is achieved continue to remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activation pattern measuring blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal during smiling and jaw clenching was recorded in a group of 24 healthy subjects (11 females). Effective connectivity of premotor regions was also compared in both tasks. The brain activation pattern was similar for smile and jaw-clenching tasks. Smile activations showed topographic overlap though more extended for smile than clenching. Gender comparisons during facial movements, according to kinematics and BOLD signal, did not reveal significant differences. Effective connectivity results of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) from the same seeds located in bilateral facial premotor regions showed significant task and gender differences (pÂ <Â 0.001). The hypothesis of brain plasticity between the facial nerve and masseter nerve areas is supported by the broad cortical overlap in the representation of facial and masseter muscles.Copyright Â© 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[HOME AND AMBULATORY ARTIFICIAL NUTRITION (NADYA) GROUP REPORT, HOME PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN SPAIN, 2014]. - NutricioÌn hospitalaria
to communicate the results of the Spanish Home Parenteral Nutrition (HEN) registry of the NADYASENPE group for the year 2014.data was recorded online by NADYA group collaborators that were responsible of the HPN follow-up from 1st January to 31st December 2014.a total of 220 patients and 229 episodes of HPN were registered from 37 hospitals that represents a rate of 4.7 patients/million habitants/year 2014. The most frequent disease in adults was other diseases (23.3%), neoplasm (20.4%) followed by radical active neoplasm (11.8%) and mesenteric ischemia (10.9%). The most frequent diagnosis for children were the congenital intestinal disorders (33.3%) followed by traumatic short bowel and other diagnosis.the number of participating centers and registered patients increased progressively respect to preceding years. We consider that the HPN should be regulated by the Sanitary Administration within the framework of the National Health Service Interregional Council. And its inclusion in the portfolio of health services of the different Autonomous Comunities would be beneficial for patients and professionals.Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
The classical and quantum dynamics of molecular spins on graphene. - Nature materials
Controlling the dynamics of spins on surfaces is pivotal to the design of spintronic and quantum computing devices. Proposed schemes involve the interaction of spins with graphene to enable surface-state spintronics and electrical spin manipulation. However, the influence of the graphene environment on the spin systems has yet to be unravelled. Here we explore the spin-graphene interaction by studying the classical and quantum dynamics of molecular magnets on graphene. Whereas the static spin response remains unaltered, the quantum spin dynamics and associated selection rules are profoundly modulated. The couplings to graphene phonons, to other spins, and to Dirac fermions are quantified using a newly developed model. Coupling to Dirac electrons introduces a dominant quantum relaxation channel that, by driving the spins over Villain's threshold, gives rise to fully coherent, resonant spin tunnelling. Our findings provide fundamental insight into the interaction between spins and graphene, establishing the basis for electrical spin manipulation in graphene nanodevices.
A theoretical study of the dissociation of the sI methane hydrate induced by an external electric field. - The Journal of chemical physics
Molecular dynamics simulations in the equilibrium isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble were used to examine the strength of an external electric field required to dissociate the methane hydrate sI structure. The water molecules were modeled using the four-site TIP4P/Ice analytical potential and methane was described as a simple Lennard-Jones interaction site. A series of simulations were performed at T = 260 K with P = 80 bars and at T = 285 K with P = 400 bars with an applied electric field ranging from 1.0 V nm(-1) to 5.0 V nm(-1). For both (T,P) conditions, applying a field greater than 1.5 V nm(-1) resulted in the orientation of the water molecules such that an ice Ih-type structure was formed, from which the methane was segregated. When the simulations were continued without the external field, the ice-like structures became disordered, resulting in two separate phases: gas methane and liquid water.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Insulin Detemir Compared to Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) in Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Spain. - Diabetes therapy : research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders
An Excel(Â®) (Microsoft Corporation) model was adapted to estimate the short-term (1-year) cost effectiveness of insulin detemir (IDet) versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in patients initiating insulin treatment with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Spain.Clinical benefits included the non-severe hypoglycemia rate for T1DM and T2DM, and weight change for T2DM. Three scenarios were included with different hypoglycemia rates estimated on the basis of clinical trials and observational studies. Costs, estimated from perspective of the Spanish Public Healthcare System (Euros 2014), included insulin treatment and non-severe hypoglycemia management costs. Non-severe hypoglycemia, defined as a self-managed event, implied the use of extra glucose testing strips and a general practitioner visit during the week following the event for 25% of patients. An average disutility value was associated to non-severe hypoglycemia events and, for T2DM, to one body mass index unit gain to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs).For the three scenarios a range of 0.025-0.076Â QALYs for T1DM and 0.014-0.051Â QALYs for T2DM were gained for IDet versus NPH due to non-severe hypoglycemia and weight gain avoidance, in return of an incremental cost of â‚¬145-192 for T1DM and â‚¬128-206 for T2DM. This resulted in the IDet versus NPH incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) ranging between â‚¬1910/QALY and â‚¬7682/QALY for T1DM and â‚¬2522/QALY and â‚¬15,009/QALY for T2DM.IDet was a cost-effective alternative to NPH insulin in the first year of treatment of patients with T1DM and patients with T2DM in Spain, with ICERs under the threshold value commonly accepted in Spain (â‚¬30,000/QALY).Novo Nordisk.
Evolution of strategic risks under future scenarios for improved utility master plans. - Water research
Integrated, long-term risk management in the water sector is poorly developed. Whilst scenario planning has been applied to singular issues (e.g. climate change), it often misses a link to risk management because the likelihood of impacts in the long-term are frequently unaccounted for in these analyses. Here we apply the morphological approach to scenario development for a case study utility, Empresa Portuguesa das Ãguas Livres (EPAL). A baseline portfolio of strategic risks threatening the achievement of EPAL's corporate objectives was evolved through the lens of three future scenarios, 'water scarcity', 'financial resource scarcity' and 'strong economic growth', built on drivers such as climate, demographic, economic, regulatory and technological changes and validated through a set of expert workshops. The results represent how the baseline set of risks might develop over a 30 year period, allowing threats and opportunities to be identified and enabling strategies for master plans to be devised. We believe this to be the first combined use of risk and futures methods applied to a portfolio of strategic risks in the water utility sector.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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