Ucla Cardiothoracic Surgery 10833 Leconte Ave 62-182 Chs
Los Angeles CA 90095
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Long-term clinical outcomes of focal impulse and rotor modulation for treatment of atrial fibrillation: A multicenter experience. - Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
New approaches to ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) include focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM). Studies of this technology with short-term follow-up have shown favorable outcomes.The purpose of this study was to characterize the long-term results of FIRM ablation in a cohort of patients treated at 2 academic medical centers.All FIRM-guided ablation procedures (n = 43) at UCLA Medical Center and Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center performed between January 2012 and October 2013 were included for analysis. During AF, FIRM software constructed phase maps from unipolar atrial electrograms to identify putative AF sources. These sites were targeted for ablation, along with pulmonary vein isolation in 77% of patients.AF was paroxysmal in 56%, and 67% had prior AF ablation. All patients had rotors identified (mean 2.6 Â± 1.2 per patient, 77% in LA). Prespecified acute procedural end-point was achieved in 47% of patients (n = 20): AF termination in 4, organization in 7, >10% slowing of AF cycle length in 9. Acute complications occurred in 4 patients (9.3%). At 18 Â± 7 months of follow-up, 37% were free from documented recurrent AF after a 3-month blanking period; 21% were free from documented atrial tachyarrhythmias and off antiarrhythmic drugs. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any significant predictors of AF recurrence, including pattern of AF, acute procedural success, or prior failed ablation.Long-term clinical results after FIRM ablation in this cohort of patients showed poor efficacy, different from previously published studies. Randomized studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and clinical utility of this ablation approach for treating AF.Copyright Â© 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Targeted Swallow Screen for the Detection of Postoperative Dysphagia. - The American surgeon
Postoperative dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, prolonged hospital stay, and is associated with increased mortality. A simple and sensitive screening test to identify patients requiring objective dysphagia evaluation is presently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel targeted swallow screen evaluation. This was a prospective trial involving all adult patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at our institution over an 8-week period. Within 24 hours of extubation and before the initiation of oral intake, all postsurgical patients were evaluated using the targeted swallow screen. A fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was requested for failed screenings. During the study, 50 postcardiac surgery patients were screened. Fifteen (30%) failed the targeted swallow screen, and ten of the fifteen (66%) failed the subsequent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing exam and were confirmed to have dysphagia. The screening test had 100 per cent sensitivity for detecting dysphagia in our patient population, and a specificity of 87.5 per cent. The overall incidence of dysphagia was 20 per cent. We have shown that a targeted swallow evaluation can efficiently screen patients during the postcardiac surgery period. Furthermore, we have shown that the true incidence of dysphagia after cardiac surgery is significantly higher than previously recognized in literature.
Value of a Joint Cardiac Surgery-Cardiac Electrophysiology Approach to Lead Extraction. - Journal of cardiac surgery
We report three cases of vascular injury during laser lead extractions, requiring urgent surgical correction. Immediate sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass were possible because of an institutional collaboration where cardiac surgeon and cardiac electrophysiologist jointly perform these cases, and all patients survived. We propose this joint approach is ultimately the best option for patients undergoing lead extraction.Â© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Predicting postoperative atrial fibrillation using CHA2DS2-VASc scores. - The Journal of surgical research
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most frequent complication of cardiac surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pharmacologic prophylaxis is the main method of preventing POAF but needs to be targeted to patients at high risk of developing POAF. The CHA2DS2-VASc scoring system is a clinical guideline for assessing ischemic stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. The present study evaluated the utility of this scoring system in predicting the risk of developing de novo POAF in cardiac surgery patients.A total of 2385 patients undergoing cardiac surgery at our institution from 2008-2014 were identified for analysis. Each patient was assigned a CHA2DS2-VASc score and placed into a low- (score of 0), intermediate- (1), or high-risk (â‰¥2) group. AÂ multivariate regression model was created to control for known risk factors of atrial fibrillation.POAF occurred in 380 of 2385 patients (15.9%). Mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores among patients with POAF and without POAF were 3.6Â Â±Â 1.7 and 2.8Â Â±Â 1.7, respectively (PÂ <Â 0.0001). Using multivariate analysis, as a patient's CHA2DS2-VASc score rose from 0-9, the risk of developing POAF increased from 8.2%-42.3%. Each point increase was associated with higher odds of developing POAF (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.36, PÂ <Â 0.0001). Compared with low-risk patients, patients in the high-risk group were 5.21 times more likely to develop POAF (PÂ <Â 0.0001).The CHA2DS2-VASc algorithm is a simple risk-stratification tool that could be used to direct pharmacologic prophylaxis toward patients most likely to experience POAF.Published by Elsevier Inc.
Quantitative analysis of localized sources identified by focal impulse and rotor modulation mapping in atrial fibrillation. - Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology
New approaches to ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) include focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM) mapping, and initial results reported with this technique have been favorable. We sought to independently evaluate the approach by analyzing quantitative characteristics of atrial electrograms used to identify rotors and describe acute procedural outcomes of FIRM-guided ablation.All FIRM-guided ablation procedures (n=24; 50% paroxysmal) at University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center were included for analysis. During AF, unipolar atrial electrograms collected from a 64-pole basket catheter were used to construct phase maps and identify putative AF sources. These sites were targeted for ablation, in conjunction with pulmonary vein isolation in most patients (n=19; 79%). All patients had rotors identified (mean, 2.3Â±0.9 per patient; 72% in left atrium). Prespecified acute procedural end point was achieved in 12 of 24 (50%) patients: AF termination (n=1), organization (n=3), or >10% slowing of AF cycle length (n=8). Basket electrodes were within 1 cm of 54% of left atrial surface area, and a mean of 31 electrodes per patient showed interpretable atrial electrograms. Offline analysis revealed no differences between rotor and distant sites in dominant frequency or Shannon entropy. Electroanatomic mapping showed no rotational activation at FIRM-identified rotor sites in 23 of 24 patients (96%).FIRM-identified rotor sites did not exhibit quantitative atrial electrogram characteristics expected from rotors and did not differ quantitatively from surrounding tissue. Catheter ablation at these sites, in conjunction with pulmonary vein isolation, resulted in AF termination or organization in a minority of patients (4/24; 17%). Further validation of this approach is necessary.Â© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Acute Effects of Pacing at Different Ventricular Sites on Left Ventricular Rotational Mechanics in a Porcine Model. - Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of pacing at different ventricular sites on hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) rotational mechanics using speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in a porcine model.A prospective laboratory investigation.University research laboratory.Yorkshire pigs.In 9 pigs, after midline sternotomy, epicardial pacing was performed from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), right ventricular apex (RVA), and LV free wall.Two-dimensional STE and conductance catheter-derived LV pressure-volume measurements were made to determine the impact of pacing from various sites on LV rotational parameters (twist/untwist) and hemodynamics. RVOT pacing caused the least decrease in end-systolic pressure from baseline (-9.5%), when compared with RVA (-19.1%) and LV (-23.4%). Systolic and diastolic parameters (Emax, Tau) also were different among RVOT (4.7Â±0.8 mmHg/mL, 32Â±4 ms), RVA (3.9Â±0.7 mmHg/mL, 37Â±6 ms), and LV sites (3.6Â±0.8 mmHg/mL, 42Â±7 ms). Similar to the effects of pacing on hemodynamics, RVOT pacing better preserved LV twist (11.1Â±1.8 v 8.6Â±1.7, 5.9Â±0.7 Â°) and untwisting rate (64.6Â±8.5 v 56.2Â±5.3, 48.2Â±8.5 Â°/s) when compared with RV apical pacing and LV pacing. Furthermore, prolongation of conduction from LV lateral to anteroseptal at LV base (26.5Â±3.8 v 13.8Â±3.3 ms, p<0.05) and LV midpapillary muscle level (35.6Â±5.6 v 14.1Â±2.4 ms, p<0.05) was observed with LV pacing compared with RVOT pacing.The present data showed that the LV twist/untwist and cardiac systolic and diastolic function were least affected by RVOT pacing. This finding may be explained by the proximity of this location to the native ventricular conduction system.Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Do preoperative Î²-blockers improve postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery? Challenging societal guidelines. - The American surgeon
Preoperative Î²-blockers (BBs) are widely administered to reduce morbidity and mortality among surgical patients. In fact, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons uses the administration of preoperative BBs as a quality metric. Recent reports, however, have questioned the benefit and safety of preoperative BB administration. The aim of our study was to investigate whether preoperative BBs lead to improved surgical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A review of our prospectively maintained institutional database was done to identify adults undergoing cardiac operations at our institution from 2008 to 2013. Survival to discharge was the primary outcome with several additional secondary measures of morbidity included. A total of 2120 patients were included in the analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model was developed to adjust for differences between patient groups. After adjustment, BB administration was associated with lower odds of both prolonged ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 0.73; P = 0.032) and prolonged length of stay (OR, 0.79; P = 0.044). BB use was not associated with significant differences in other outcomes such as mortality or postoperative atrial fibrillation. Our study found that preoperative BBs may not be associated with sufficiently improved outcomes to justify their use as a quality metric in this population. Thus, prospective studies are warranted.
The cost of preventing readmissions: why surgeons should lead the effort. - The American surgeon
In accordance with the Affordable Care Act, Medicare has instituted financial penalties for hospitals with 30-day readmission rates that exceed a predetermined value. Currently, this value only considers "excess" readmissions for myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia with a maximum fine being one per cent of total Medicare reimbursements. In 2015, this penalty will increase to three per cent and encompass more surgical diagnoses. We retrospectively reviewed a database of adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery treated at our institution in 2012 to establish whether patients with readmissions within 30 days of the index operation could have been managed more cost-effectively without readmission. A calculation of cost efficiency was performed to compare the net hospital profit for two scenarios: admitting patients versus hypothetical preventative measures. Of the 576 patients during the study period, a total of 68 (11.8%) patients with unplanned 30-day readmissions were identified. Outpatient management was determined to have been feasible for 18 (26.5%) patients. Whereas the calculated net profit for readmission was $144,000, inclusion of Medicare's penalty resulted in a loss of $11,950. A readmission reduction program with an annual cost exceeding $11,950 would lead to financial loss. The financial implications of Medicare's readmission penalty alone necessitate the development of cost-effective strategies to reduce rehospitalization.
Effects and mechanisms of acupuncture based on the principle of meridians. - Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies
Acupuncture has been practiced in China for over 2000 years to treat a variety of diseases based on the "meridian theory" as described in the Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine. To this date, the meridian theory continues to be an important guide for traditional Chinese medicine practitioners to diagnose and treat patients. Although the meridians have not been identified reliably as actual anatomical structures, they appear to serve as a road map to identify the location of various acupoints. Research has shown that acupoints overlie major neuronal bundles. The meridians extensively studied in the cardiovascular realm are the pericardial meridians (P) 5, 6, which overlie the deep median nerve. Meridians involved with gastrointestinal processes are (St) 36, 37, which overlie the deep peroneal nerve. Acupuncture needles, either manipulated manually or stimulated using a low current and frequency, have been documented to be a neurophysiological basis for modulating the activity of peripheral and central neural pathways. This review describes our current understanding of acupoints and meridians from a physiological aspect.Copyright Â© 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Significance of "Deqi" response in acupuncture treatment: myth or reality. - Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies
Acupuncture has been practiced in China for over 2000 years to treat a variety of diseases based on the "meridian theory," as described in the "Yellow Emperor's Classics of Internal Medicine." Deqi refers to the excitation of qi or vital energy inside meridians by acupuncture needle stimulation. Patients often experience multidimensional and intense needling sensations such as numbness, soreness, distention, heaviness, dull pain, and sharp pain during acupuncture stimulation. Deqi is considered as an important parameter in the process of achieving therapeutic effectiveness in acupuncture treatment. Understanding this phenomenon from neurophysiological aspects is important for clinical practice and enables practitioners to perform quantitative acupuncture evaluation to obtain a reliable prognosis of acupuncture treatment. This review paper describes our current knowledge and understanding of Deqi from a physiological aspect.Copyright Â© 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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